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Why are there so few women in science? Introduction to the leaky pipeline research. Women in Science Tips, Tricks and Answers Skill Training for Young Scientists by Postgraduates’ International Network (PI-NET) Flying Puli Cafe (1072 Bp., Klauzál utca 13.) 2014. május 8. Paksi Veronika

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why are there so few women in science introduction to the leaky pipeline research

Why are there so few women in science?Introduction to the leaky pipeline research

Women in Science

Tips, Tricks and Answers

Skill Training for Young Scientists

by Postgraduates’ International Network (PI-NET)

Flying Puli Cafe (1072 Bp., Klauzál utca 13.)

2014. május 8.

Paksi Veronika

Research Assistant, Institute of Sociology, CSC, HAS

PhD student, Corvinus University Budapest

Member, Women in Science Association

E-mail: paksi.veronika@tk.mta.hu

Supported by Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA K 104707)

Head of Research: Dr. Beáta Nagy, Associate Professor, Corvinus University Budapest

table of content
Table of content
  • The leaky pipeline metaphor
  • Development of the leaky pipeline research
  • Main obstacles to women’ career advancement during
    • education
    • establishing early career
    • career building

7. Conclusion

the leaky pipeline metaphor
Berryman (1983) introduced the metaphore to show the gender imbalance in science

Horizontal segregation

Vertical segregation:

as career proceeds we find fewer and fewer women with higher scientific degrees or in higher positions

even when there is a balanced gender proportion in MA or PhD level

public and private sector

The metaphore conceptualized the career as a narrowing pipeline from which women „leak out” to a greater extent than men

Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM)

The leaky pipeline metaphor
i education
I. Education
  • Masculine worldview of science
  • Girls’ academic performance
  • Girls’ interest towards science
  • Curriculum
  • Pedagogy and methods
  • Chilly climate
  • Lack of female role models
  • Lack of networking and mentoring

(Blickenstaff 2005)

ii career establishment
II. Career establishment

1. Career and family establishment should be/are at the same life period

  • majority of PhD: age of 30-36
  • Age of higher educated women at 1st child: over age of 30
  • Problem of balancing

2.Rigid, male career model:

  • white, male middle class male employment, 50ies-60ies
  • continuous employment, lock-step advancement,
  • Inflexible, though labor market changed foundamentally
  • academic clock ↔ women’ biological clock
  • punishments for career breaks

3. (More) postponement of career and family establishment

  • limited

4. Work-life imbalance

(Hewlett 2007, Wolfinger 2008,)

work life im balance
Work-life (im)balance*
  • Professional women (USA, Sweden)
    • Children within 5 years after PhD = less choice for tenure position
    • Higher proportion of singles
    • Fewer children
    • First child at a later age
    • More childless (all compared to men)
  • Top achieving professional women (every field, USA)
    • first child: early (in their 20ies) or late (age of 35-38), but no later
    • 20% have fertility problems
    • Childcare and household chores remain their resposibility
    • 24-31% career breaks due to caring for other family members
  • Fertility differences by fields
    • physicians >attorneys > academics
    • care, teaching and culture> economics andtechnology
  • Women’ attitudes and preferences
    • Women in STEM are family-oriented, as other women!

* from all research fields, not just STEM

(Hewlett 2007, Lappegard 2005, Mason et al 2010, Wolfinger 2008, Hakim 2006)

iii career building
Chilly climate

Lack of female role models

Lack of networking and mentoring

Discrimination, biases

Sandwich generation: situation of senior researchers: taking care of other family members

III. Career building
conclusion
Conclusion
  • Pipeline is still leaking
  • Research of all 3 career stages is important
  • Obstacles are interrelated
  • More complex research are needed
slide11
Thank you for your attention!

Veronika Paksi

E-mail: paksi.veronika@tk.mta.hu

Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA K 104707)

Head of Research: Beáta Nagy, Associate Professor, Corvinus University Budapest

slide12
Association of

Hungarian Women in Science

Nők a Tudományban Egyesület tagjai olyan világban szeretnének élni, amely egyformán integrálja és elismeri mindkét nem tudását a társadalmi és technológiai innováció folyamataiban.

Misszió, cél:

  • Az egyesület tevékeny részt kíván vállalni a társadalmi innováció azon hazai és  nemzetközi folyamataiban, amelyek hozzájárulnak ahhoz, hogy
    • a tudomány és innováció közelebb kerüljön a társadalom egészéhez
    • minden fiatal tehetségének megfelelő tanulási lehetőséget és szakmai életpályát választhasson
    • az esélyegyenlőség alapvető és kikerülhetetlen értékmérő szemponttá váljon a kutatás-fejlesztés és innováció valamennyi területén
    • megvalósuljon egy sokszínű, kiegyensúlyozott kutató-fejlesztői társadalom.
  • Elérhetőségek: Szigeti Fanni, fanni.szigeti@nokatud.hu,
  • +36 30 656 14 89.
selected references
Selected references
  • Berryman, S (1983) Who will Do Science? Minority and Female Attainment of Science and Mathematics Degrees: Trends and Causes. NY: Rockefeller Foundation
  • Carli, L. L. - Eagly, A. H. (2007) A társas befolyásban és a vezetővé válásban mutatkozó nemi eltérések. In: Nagy B. (szerk.) Szervezet, menedzsment és nemek. Budapest: Aula
  • Godfroy-Genin AA (2009) "Women's academic careers in technology: a comparative European perspective", Equal Opportunities International, 28(1): 80-97
  • Hewlett, S. A. (2003) Creating a Life: What Every Woman Needs to Know About Having a Baby and a Career. New York: Miramax Books
  • Hewlett, S. A. (2007) Off-ramps and On-ramps: Keeping Talented Women on the Road to Success. Boston: Harvard Business School
  • Hochschild A. (1989) The second shift. Working Families and the Revolution at Home. New York: Penguin Group
  • Husu L-Koskinen P(2010): "What does it take to get to the top? Women at the top of technological research". In: Godfroy-Genin, Ann-Sophie (ed.): Women in Engineering and Technology Research. Berlin: Lit Verlag pp. 303-326.
  • Mavriplis C, et al (2010) Mind the Gap: Women in STEM Career Breaks, Journal of Technology Management and Innovation, 5(1):140-151
  • Ridgeway, C. L. - Correll, S. J. (2004) Motherhood as a Status Characteristic. Journal of Social Issues, 60(4) 683-700
  • Wolfinger, et al(2008). “Problems in the Pipeline: Gender, Marriage, and Fertility in the Ivory Tower.” The Journal of Higher Education 79:388-405. Published, 2008.
aj nlott irodalom
Ajánlott irodalom
  • Xie 2003 (empíria, közép-és felsőoktatás)
  • Lewis 2013 (fenntartható karrier)
  • Blickenstaff 2005 (összefoglaló, közép-és felsőoktatás)
  • Bennett 2011 (kritika, okok bemutatása karrierszakaszonként)
  • Harding S 1986 (tudomány feminista kritikája)
  • Margolis 2001 (rejtett tanterv a felsőoktatásban)
  • Hewlett 2007 (magasan képzett nők munka-magánélet egyensúly)
n k ar nya a doktori k pz sben mo
Nők aránya a doktori képzésben (Mo) (%)

Sikeres védések aránya a beiratkozottak tükrében

11,8

12,4 %

9,5

16,7 %

12,1

15,4 %

Saját számítás. Magyarországi adatok. Forrás: KSH

why to research women in science
Why to research women in science?
  • Social injustice: gender inequalities
  • Segregation: reproduces inequalities
  • Loss of human capital
  • Waste of talents
  • Lack of women’ (and other minorities’) approach: the more diverse approach there is in science the better
  • Lack of engineers ⇔economic development of industrialized economies based on science and technology