PETAL-IIPreliminary Eurocontrol Test of Air/ground data Link, Phase IIOperational Validation &Early Implementation Rob Mead PETAL-II Trials & Project Manager Eurocontrol, DIS/ATD
Topics • Aims and Objectives • Current Operations • Results and Lessons • ATN extension & PIT
We are Essentially Done • We Met Our Original Objectives in 1998 • Multiple equipped aircraft on one channel • Total rewrite of the key service (transfer) • Numerous defects identified (e.g. timers) • Requirements gaps identified • Operational contact exceeds expectations • Accelerated implementation of air/ground datalink • Within cost and schedule targets • Operational package validated
New Objectives: PETAL-IIe • Virtually no trials objectives left after 1998 • AAL offered • First fully certified and approved ATN avionics • End-to-end functionality based on cooperative FAA and European development • Transatlantic harmonization for full operations
PETAL-II Operational Package • Operational trials, in situ, with users • Pilot and controller always in command • Voice readback before clearance execution • Fully silent for all other communications • CPDLC message set (42 up, 22 down) Routine R/T (transfer, level, route, heading, crossing conditions, vertical rate, speed, etc.) • A little ADS and CM / AFN (log-on) • ATN (and FANS-1/A) compliant events. • Multiple a/g datalink-equipped aircraft
End-to-End Partners, Current Ops VDL-4prototype ATN FANS-1/A Maastricht France SAS, Lufthansa SRA, ANZ, UAL, DLH, QFA, SIA, ACA, COA Simulation Downlink Parameters ICAO CNS/ATM Operational data and behavior SITA VDL-4 stations Mode-S PETAL-II Gateway
red: >200 IFR flights / day Applicable Airspace (in 2010)
OPEN 2119Z FROM KZAK CTL ATALCOA CLB TO & MAINTFL310 *UNABLE STBY* <OTHER WILCO* Airbus Flight Deck ATC COMM
PETAL-II Review (current ops) • 4087 flights used CPDLC thru August 2000 • Now 300+ CPDLC flights / month • Regular use from • DC-9: SAS (NEAN) - currently deactivated • B747-200: DLH (NEAN) - currently deactivated • B747-400: DLH, QFA, ANZ, SIA, ACA (FANS-1) • B777: UAL, COA (FANS-1) • Multi-stack operations in place • All day, all sectors (16)
Operational Acceptance Lessons • Performance stability seems to be a key • Controller familiarity is a key risk • Target: One flight per controller shift • Training is critical • and it does not go away after IOC • HMI is critical (air and ground) • Advanced displays needed on ground • Dedicated displays recognized as useful for air • EICAS appreciated in air • Mode control panel synch appreciated in air • Advanced air HMI appreciated on ground
Message Set lessons • Sub-sets are needed, and will exist • Interop mechanism needed to assist crews and controllers in handling them • Go slow: build a little • Your controllers and crews have enough to learn with CPDLC; don't swamp them • Start with the HMI; you'll cut your messages • There is a common set across airspaces • If we can define it, we can optimize HMIs.
Pay Attention to Transfer of Comm • Essential service (if it doesn't work, nothing does) • Probably the highest operational benefit • 8.33 channels noticeably increased its utility • Major differences with other regions = trouble • If you do, both aircrew and controllers will suffer • In this airspace, don't assume datalink • Design for voice transfers as common mode • Holds true for all CPDLC services
Mixed Equipage • Simultaneous datalink aircraft / sector • Up to 30 aircraft (all types) in sector at one time • Max number datalink aircraft: 3 • Flight time / sector: 5 - 30 minutes • Overlap time: 1 - 26 minutes • Datalink use: heavy to not at all • Mixed equipage preliminary results • Not considered a serious problem but • Will limit benefits • Minimum one flight per control session required
Multi-Stack Architecture Controller HMI Controller HMI Controller HMI Controller HMI Flight Data Processing System - Flight plan / address association - ATN SARPS (ICAO doc 9705), CPDLC, ADS, CM - All datalink service logic (e.g. connection set-up / transfer, timers, etc.) IDD BER P2FEP PETAL Gateway NFEP - Aircraft address/state - ASE emulation CM, CPDLC, ADS - Data conversion FaFEP - Aircraft address/state - ASE emulation CM, CPDLC, ADS - Data conversion ALLA - Aircraft address/state - Data conversion IDD PER NEAN Server FANS-1/A Gateway ProATN - ASEs: CM, CPDLC, ADS - ATN Router
FANS-1/A Accommodation (2) • Key shortcomings for this airspace type • Legacy / older HMIs • Lack of magnetic heading in ADS • ADS event contract limitations • Airways / route designator definitions ( 7 vs. 5 ch) • RCP (reliability, performance, integrity) • Key log-on data missing • No lat/long back-up for route points • ARINC 424 vs. ICAO nav databases • No logical response (European issue) • Old messages displayed without warning • Delivery Assurance??
Minimize Your Procedural Fixes Work the procedures during systems design allows you to use system solutions to fix system problems procedural work-arounds are bad news Procedures will break-down Step on the phrase "That won't happen if they follow the procedures" Sometimes, they won't follow the procedure. Recognise that, and help them if you can.
ODIAC Methodology • Direct quote from a requirements document:The standardisation afforded by the SARPs provides assurances that aircraft implementations by different manufacturers will be interoperable with … ground systems • This is not entirely accurate • PETAL-II implemented: • rapidly, and with very few "teething pains" • We had the ODIAC source material (end-end) • We maintained the multi-discipline, user-driven approach
Pre-requisite: Integration Team Develop End-to-End Specifications End-end procedures, automation, messages interoperable use of SARPS, now to DO/ED Plan and coordinate certification Plan and coordinate initial fielding (air, ground, comm) Formalise issues via RTCA/Eurocae, ICAO Monitor and manage operations Multi-discipline approach essential Introduced after firm commitments Accountability essential Streamlined structure essential Standards bodies are not well suited to this
End-to-End Partners, Next Generation VDL-4prototype ATN FANS-1/A French Shadow Mode Maastricht FAA France SAS, Lufthansa SRA, ANZ, UAL, DLH, QFA, SIA, ACA, COA AAL Simulation Collins Avionics Downlink Parameters ICAO CNS/ATM Operational data and behavior SITA ARINC a/g ATN VDL-2 VDL-4 stations Mode-S PETAL-II Gateway
Base-1 Base-2 FAA Implementation Program 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 …. PETAL-II Integration Team (PIT) Op Concept PETAL Op Requirements PETAL-II PETAL-II extension Sim LINK PIT Sim B-1 B-1A CPC B-2 ADS AIDC
Conclusion • Additional Partners always welcome • FANS-1 (controller familiarity now) • ATN (help achieve operational harmonization) • Monthly report, PIT, or newsletter distro? • Contact • firstname.lastname@example.org • email@example.com • www.eurocontrol.be/projects/eatchip/petal2/