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  1. PROGRESS OF THE MILKIT PROJECT IN TANZANIA: Preliminary DVC assessment in Tanzania – with emphasis on feeds and feeding

  2. Preliminary DVC assessment in Tanzania Research Activities • DVC Assessment in Morogoro and Tanga(More-MilkiT, MilkIT and SFFF July–Aug 2012 )

  3. Preliminary DVC assessment in Tanzania Objectives • Obtain an overview of dairy value chains and DVC actors in selected regions and districts of Tanzania

  4. Tanga & MorogoroRegion

  5. Tanga & MorogoroRegion

  6. Preliminary DVC assessment in Tanzania Process • 8 villages in 4 districts from 2 regions • Focus group discussions with producers in 8 villages • Production systems: • Extensive/agro-pastoral (3 villages) – livestock dominates • Semi-intensive (3 villages) – cropping dominates • Intensive – improved dairy cows (2 villages) • Individual interviews, selected through snowball principle and key informants, with • Service and input suppliers • Traders and vendors

  7. Preliminary DVC assessment in Tanzania Tanzania Country Tanga Region Morogoro Mvomero Lushoto Handeni District Kilosa Ward Village a a a a b b b b c c c c MilkIT feed activities in village types a and c. Overarching IP at Regional level and local feed IP’s at District level.

  8. Preliminary DVC assessment in Tanzania Focus group discussions with producers from 8 villages • Concurrently 3 FGDs in each village focusing on • Village mapping– natural, social + financial resources, infrastructure + land use system • Value chain mapping • Epidemiological issues – animal health • Feeding and breeding management • Gender roles, and • Livelihood assessment – importance of livestock – and decision making power in the livestock sector

  9. Preliminary DVC assessment in Tanzania Considerations concerning village selection • Cattle numbers + number of cattle-keeping households • Improved cattle + number of households with improved cattle • Market channels: • Rural to rural • Rural to urban • Production systems • Intensive/semi-intensive • Extensive • Accessibility

  10. Preliminary DVC assessment in Tanzania Characteristics of selected villages

  11. Preliminary DVC assessment in Tanzania Natural resources & Infrastructure • All villages have • Water from rivers • Electric power supply – except Kambala and Mbwade • Opportunity to install chilling facility for collecting milk • Road access throughout the year– except Kambala • Feeds • Easy access to maize bran – could be used to supplement cows

  12. Preliminary DVC assessment in Tanzania Milk marketing channels • Main channels identified • Collection centers (Tanga Fresh and Tan Dairies) • Local restaurants • Neighbours/households through vendors • Some channels dropped in the dry season • Mainly individual households and restaurants • Differences in prices – lowest by collection centers • Large price fluctuation due to milk surplus in main rainy season

  13. Preliminary DVC assessment in Tanzania Feeding systems available • Seasonal feeding • Pastoral transhumance (Livestock & household moved) • Pastoral transhumance (Livestock only moved) • Agro-pastoral (mainly grazing within boma feeding or tethering) • Agro-pastoral (mainly boma feeding or tethering) • Agro-pastoral (only stall feeding)

  14. Preliminary DVC assessment in Tanzania Feed & feeding issues – 1 • 3 seasons identified: long and short wet, and dry season • Feed availability varies with seasons • Long and short wet seasons abundant feed in the 8 villages • Dry season low feed availability in both extensive and semi-intensive production system • In extensive system, animals are moved to areas where there is pasture (transhumance) • Feed variability affects • Milk availability in three main milk channels and • Milk price – increase in dry season

  15. Preliminary DVC assessment in Tanzania Feed purchased in Manyinga village, Mvomero • Hominy feed (coarse maize flour) • Sunflower seed cake • Rice polishing • Molasses • Limestone • DicalciumPhosphate • Maclick (mineral powder) • Salt

  16. Preliminary DVC assessment in Tanzania Feed & feeding issues – 2 • Lack of access to concentrate feeds mentioned as a challenge in semi-intensive system • Preferential feeding reported by farmers in semi-intensive/ intensive system – pregnant cows fed with concentrate 2-3 months before calving • Fewer feed types contributing to animal diet in extensive than in intensive system • Extensive: communal grazing land, legume and cereal residues, grazing in valley and transhumance • Semi/intensive: grasses from communal land, planted grasses, crop residue (cereals and legumes), maize bran, tree leaves, conserved feed, banana pseudo stem and tubers depending on availability

  17. Preliminary DVC assessment in Tanzania Feeding systems: extensive vs. semi-intensive/intensive Feed resources throughout the year in Sindeni, Handeni – extensive Feed resources throughout the year in Kwang’wenda, Lushoto – semi-intensive

  18. Preliminary DVC assessment in Tanzania Feed & feeding issues – constraints • Lack of knowledge • Feeding requirements and feed resources • Feed conservation (semi-intensive/intensive system) • Cattle do not feed on dry grass • Lack of grazing land • Problems with termites • Land sales • Conflicts between pastoralists and crop farmers • Lack of resources for • Hay/crop residue storage facilities • Few or no input suppliers in villages • Water in the dry season

  19. Preliminary DVC assessment in Tanzania Feed & feeding issues – possible solutions • Planted fodders – require dry season tolerance • Compounded feed • Feed supplement/additives (e.g., molasses not used as animal feed) • Conserved feeds (Hay, silage) • Crop residues (Stover, straw, bean halls etc)