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Telephone System

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  1. Telephone System By : Warsun Najib

  2. Telepon System Concept • Telephone network is often called as PSTN (Public Switch Telephone Network) • Telephone Device • Central Office (CO) suatu istilah untuk menggambarkan pusat jaringan telepon (dalam suatu kota). Tugasnya menyediakan daya untuk telepon, me-routing panggilan, merekam tagihan telepon, dsb. • Trunk (E1) • Link/kabel between CO to other CO • Local Loop Pasangan kabel telepon yang terhubung antara central office dan pesawat telepon rumah (kantor). • Switch Perangkat yang me-route komunikasi ke bagian (tempat) yang lain. • Pada awalnya, switch terbuat dari banyak switch-switch mekanik • Saat ini, mayoritas switch adalah elektronis, bahkan digital. • Digital switches lebih reliable, dan menawarkan banyak keuntungan • Distribution Network • MDF • Rumah Kabel

  3. Hook Switch 2 • Hibrid • Pemisah mic • dengan speaker • Penekan nada • samping 1 Speaker Dialer Mic Bell Telephone Set Standby : Hoook switch is on position 1, Idc from CO does not come, Ringing signal (ac) can activate Bell Busy : Switch is off-hook (hook-switvh on position 2),

  4. Telephone : Off-Hook / Busy dial I DC H D bicara lawan bicara saudara I dc I sendiri

  5. Side Tone


  6. Dialing System • DTMF (Dual tone multi frequency) • Rotary Switch

  7. Kolom 1 [1209 Hz] Kolom 2 [1336 Hz] Kolom 3 [1477 Hz] 1 2 3 Baris 1 [697 Hz] 4 5 6 Baris 2[770 Hz] 7 8 9 Baris 3[852 Hz] * 0 # Baris 4[941 Hz] Dual Tone Multi-frequency

  8. DTMF i(t) Digit ‘1’ Digit ‘6’ space T T t Periode T > 100 ms depend on how fast finger push the button (normally 250 ms)

  9. 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 v1 I v 2 Dialing : Rotary Switch ‘1’ one stop pulse ‘2’ two stop pulse ‘3’ three stop pulse … ‘0’ ten stop pulse

  10. i(t) Dial a number Off-hook ‘2' ‘3’ space t 0 T/3 T :100 ms ≥ 4T Rotary switch dialing system

  11. Subscriber link signal (Link Voltage) Volt 100 50 0 -50 -100 -150 Bell, ringing voltage Dialing pulse voice Off-hook On-hook Incoming Outgoing 1-2 V ingoing 0,5-1 V I:16-20 mA, 6-8 V 48 V Δv: 48 V ΔI: 18 mA 20 Hz, 90 Vrms, 2 s on, 3 s off

  12. trunk SLIC Switching Device trunk SLIC SLIC Controller Pengisyaratan Pengisyaratan register Switching Element Central Office To/from other CO • Controller can be : • Sentralized • Distributed at signaling and switcing Device SLIC : Subscriber Line Interface Circuit

  13. Switching System Step By Step, Each digit activates directly one switching-level, except the last 2 digit usually connected to 2-dimension switch 3054 3 0 5 4 Call Finder Switch level 1 Switch level 2 Switch level 3 Switch level 4

  14. Illustration of Call Switching

  15. Common Control • Each digit of dialed number is first stored in a register at CO, then if the destination number is not busy, call is routed to the phone.

  16. Switching Process of Telephone Call Caller lift handset / off hook CO find the available link Get a link No Yes CO send dial-tone to caller Caller dial the destination number

  17. CO make switching process Is dialed number free (not busy) ? yes no CO send busy tone to caller phone • CO send: • Ringing signal to dialed phone • Ringing tone to caller phone • (tuut – tuut…..) Called phone Off hook Call drop No yes Call success

  18. Voice Signaling

  19. Private Branch eXchange CO Common Subscriber ... m ext-link PBX 90XXXX 2201 2202 1302 ... n main link Operator

  20. PBX is categorized: • PMBX private manual branch exchange • Both intern and extern call is handled by an operator • PABX-private automatic branch exchange • Intern call is automatic • Extern call • Automatic if the device has DID (direct inward dialing) • Via operator If device does not have DID • If n >1 (link between co-pbx) • User call via one number if PABX has hunting system • User can call via n different number if PABX doesn’t have hunting system. • Advantage of PBX • Cost • Probability of success call

  21. Numbering System • Open System • Close System

  22. CCP CCP Network from CO to Subscriber Primary network LE - MDF MDF 2000 pairs CCP 50 pairs DP:10 pairs DP DP PBX DP Secondary network MDF,CCP,DP are in a form of cable switching terminal

  23. Regional Central Regional Central Toll Central Toll Central Toll Central Toll Central Toll Central Toll Central LE LE LE LE LE LE yk2 yk3 yk1 Network Between LE One local area