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ÇOK KÜLTÜRLÜ, ÇOK ETNİKLİ, ÇOK DİLLİ, ÇOK DİNLİ DEVLET İÇİN TARİHİ BİR MODEL: OSMANLI İMPARATORLUĞU Sunucu: Sadık Çelik. A HISTORICAL MODEL FOR A MULTICULTURAL, MULTIETHNIC, MULTILINGUAL, MULTIRELIGIOUS STATE: OTTOMAN EMPIRE Presented by: Sadık Çelik.
TARİHİ BİR MODEL:
A HISTORICAL MODEL FOR A MULTICULTURAL,
Ben Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Devleti’nde 30 yılı aşkın bir süredir öğretmenlik yapmaktayım. Burada sizlere biraz da bu tecrübemden ve kendi tarih ve kültürümden bir sunum yapmak istemekteyim.
I’d like to express particularly the happiness that I feel to join this meeting and to be with you
I’ve been teaching for more than 30 years in the State of Turkish Republic. I’d like to present a demonstration on our own history and culture with my experience.
İnsanlara bir kimlik ve kişilik kazandıran, onları topluluk ve millet haline getiren de yaşadıkları ortak kültürdür.İnsanlar adına değişmeyen taraf birlikte yaşama olgusudur. Geçmişte daha dar çevrelerde birlikte yaşayan insanoğlu, gelişen dünyamızda daha fazla iç içe yaşamak zorunda kalmaktadır. Doğal olarak da ya birbiriyle uyum, yada çatışma içinde yaşamak zorunda kalmaktadır.
A lot of political structures have been founded, collapsed or varried all over the world throughout the history. These political metamorphosis occasionally came about very fast and radically. There is one constant element: that is human being.
The thing which causes the human being to adopt an identity and personality; causes them to be commuities and nations as well is the common culture they live through. On the behalf of human being, the constant part is the phenomenon to live together. The human beings who live together in narrower surroundings in the past, have to live one within the other much more in our developed wold. Naturally, they have to live in either unison or conflict.
Günümüz kültür çatışmalarının ortadan kaldırılmasına hizmet edebilecek uygulamalar yapmış Osmanlı İmparatorluğunu; çok kültürlü, çok dilli bir devlet modeli oluşturduğu için sizlere kısaca sunmak istiyorum. Bu sunumda Osmanlı’nın toplum yapısını, kültürel zenginliklerini: dilini ve müziğini, kültür unsuru olarak dini yapısını ve hukuk sistemini sunacağım.
At the moment, I’m a citizen of Turkish Republic which Turkish nation founded. Our naion’s state was Ottoman Empire before Turkish republic.
Briefly, I’d like to introduce you the Ottoman Empire which practised implementations to serve to remove the cultural conflicts because they formed a model of multicultural and multilingual state. I’ll present the social sructure, cultural richness: its language and music, religious structure and judicial system as cultural elements.
TARİHİ BİR MODEL:
A HISTORICAL MODEL FOR A MULTICULTURAL,
Osmanlı imparatorluğu’ndaki toplum yapısının başarılarından birisi milletler olarak adlandırılan bir örgütlenme vasıtasıyla yüksek derecede farklılaşmış nüfuslar arasında meydana gelen birlikti. Milletler Osmanlı yönetimi altında kendi toplumlarını oluşturmalarına izin verilen başlıca dini gruplardı. Milletler sultanın genel koruması altında kendi dini hukuklarını, geleneklerini, ve dillerini devam ettirerek kuruldular.
Social structure in the Ottoman Empire
One of the successes of the social structure of the Ottoman Empire was the unity that it brought about among its highly varied populations through an organization named as millets. The Millets were the major religious groups were allowed to establish their own communities under Ottoman rule. The Millets were established by retaining their own religious laws, traditions, and language under the general protection of the sultan.
Plurality was the key to the longevity of the Empire. As early as the reign of Mehmed II, extensive rights were granted to Phanariot Greeks, and Jews were invited to settle in Ottoman territory. Ultimately, the Ottoman Empire's relatively high degree of tolerance for ethnic differences proved to be one of its greatest strengths in integrating the new regions.
Lifestyle of the Ottoman Empire was a mixture of western and eastern life. One unique characteristic of Ottoman life style was it was very fragmented. The millet concept generated this fragmentation and enabled many to coexist in a mosaic of cultures.
Osmanlı İmparatorluğu bu bölgelerdeki halkın geleneklerini, sanatını ve kültür kurumlarını benimseyerek ve onlara yeni boyutlar katarak aşağı yukarı Akdeniz ve Karadeniz çevresindeki topraklara yerleşmiştir. Osmanlı İmparatorluğu şemsiyesi altında bir çok farklı kültürler yaşamıştır ve sonuç olarak, bölge merkezlerini ve başkentleri istisna, Osmanlı kültürünü tanımlamak zor olabilir. Bununla birlikte, çok sayıda etnik ve dini gruplardan oluşan Osmanlı seçkinleri arasında en yüksek seviyesine ulaştığı söylenen belirli bir kültürler kaynaşması vardır.
Culture of the Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman Empire had filled roughly the territories around the Mediterranean Sea and Black sea, while adopting their traditions, art and institutions of cultures in these regions; and adding new dimensions to them. Many different cultures lived under the umbrella of the Ottoman Empire, and as a result, a specifically "Ottoman" culture can be difficult to define, except for those of the regional centers and capital. However, there was also, to a great extent, a specific melding of cultures that can be said to have reached its highest levels among the Ottoman elite, who were composed of myriad ethnic and religious groups.
This multicultural perspective of "millets" was reflected in the Ottoman State's multi-cultural and multi-religious policies. As the Ottomans moved further west, the Ottoman leaders absorbed some of the culture of the conquered regions. Intercultural marriages also played their part in creating the characteristic Ottoman elite culture. When compared to the Turkish folk culture, the influence of these new cultures in creating the culture of the Ottoman elite was very apparent.
"Ottoman Turkish language" was a variety of Turkish, highly influenced by Persian and Arabic. Ottomans had three influential languages; Turkish, Persian, Arabic but they did not have a parallel status. Throughout the vast Ottoman bureaucracy and, in particular, within the Ottoman court in later times, a version of Turkish was spoken, albeit with a vast mixture of both Arabic and Persian grammar and vocabulary. The ethnic groups continued to speak within their families and neighborhoods with their own languages (e.g. Jews, Greeks, Armenians etc.). In villages where two or more populations lived together, the inhabitants would often speak each other's language. In cosmopolitan cities, people often spoke their family languages.
"Ottoman classical music" was an important part of the education of the Ottoman elite, a number of the Ottoman sultans were accomplished musicians and composers themselves, such as Selim III, whose compositions are still frequently performed today. Ottoman classical music arose largely from a confluence of Byzantine music, Arabic music, and Persian music. Compositionally, it is organised around rhythmic units called usul, which are somewhat similar to meter in Western music, and melodic units called makam, which bear some resemblance to Western musical modes.
Osmanlı İmparatorluğu temelde Hristiyan ve Musevilere karşı hoşgörülüydü (Kur’an-ı kerim’e göre ‘Ehl-i Kitab’, veya ‘Kitab halkı’).
Religion in the Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman Empire was, in principle, tolerant towards Christians and Jews (the "Ahl Al-Kitab", or "People of the Book", according to the Qu'ran).
900 yıldır Bizans İmparatorluğunda yürürlükte bulunmuş olan Justinyen hukukuna resmen yasal olarak bağlıydılar. Ve aynı zamanda Müslüman Osmanlı devleti’nin en geniş gayrimüslim tabileri olduklarından, Ortodoks milletine ticari ve siyasi alanlarda bir çok özel ayrıcalıklar verilmiştir.
Under the millet system, non-Muslim people were considered subjects of the empire, but were not subject to the Muslim faith or Muslim law. The Orthodox millet, for instance, was still officially legally subject to Justinian's Code, which had been in effect in the Byzantine Empire for 900 years. Also, as the largest group of non-Muslim subjects of the Islamic Ottoman state, the Orthodox millet was granted a number of special privileges in the fields of politics and commerce.
The Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II allowed the local Christians to stay in Constantinople after conquering the city in 1453, and to retain their institutions such as the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate. In 1461 Sultan Mehmed II established the Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople. In 1492, when the Muslims and Sephardic Jews were expelled from Spain during the Spanish Inquisition, the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid II sent his fleet under Kemal Reis to save them and granted the refugees the right to settle in the Ottoman Empire.
Similar millets were established for the Ottoman Jewish community, who were under the authority of the Haham Başı or Ottoman Chief Rabbi; the Armenian Orthodox community, who were under the authority of a head bishop; and a number of other religious communities as well.
Osmanlı hukuk sistemi kendi alanında hukukolarak kabul edilir. Osmanlı İmparatorluğu daima mahalli bir hukuk sistemi çerçevesinde kurulmuştur. Osmanlı İmparatorluğundaki hukuki idare daha geniş dengeli bir merkezi ve mahalli yetki tablosunun bir parçasıydı. Osmanlı iktidarı, mahalli milletin ihtiyaçlarını karşılamak üzere esas olarak mahalli yetkililere yetki alanı bırakan araziye sahip olma hakları çevresinde dönüyordu.
Ottoman legal system accepted the Religious law over its subjects. The Ottoman Empire was always organized around a system of local jurisprudence. Legal administration in the Ottoman Empire was part of a larger scheme of balancing central and local authority. Ottoman power revolved crucially around the administration of the rights to land, which gave a space for the local authority develop the needs of the local millet.
The jurisdictional complexity of the Ottoman Empire was aimed to permit the integration of culturally and religiously different groups. The Ottoman system hadthree court systems: one for Muslims, one for non-Muslims, involving appointed Jews and Christians ruling over their respective religious communities, and the "trade court".
The Islamic courts could also be used to settle a trade conflict or disputes between litigants of differing religions, and Jews and Christians often went to them so as to obtain a more forceful ruling on an issue. The Ottoman state tended not to interfere with non-Muslim religious law systems, despite legally having a voice to do so through local governors.
Briefly, as is seen, The Otoman social and cultural model never contains assimilation elements. The conception, which is extrmely respectful to basic human values, embraces the whole society, is seen.
I’d like to tell my regards to the paticipants with the wishes for the human beings to accept each other just as they are and for a long lasting and continuous peace on the earth which becomes smaller in the future as well.