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CHILDREN AS LIARS AND TARGETS OF LIES. CHILDREN AND THEIR PERCEPTIONS OF LYING. 92% OF FIVE YEAR OLDS SAY IT IS ALWAYS WRONG TO LIE 28% OF TEN YEAR OLDS SAY IT IS ALWAYS WRONG TO LIE. 2/3 OF FIRST GRADERS SAID THEIR PARENTS COULD TELL IF THEY WERE LYING

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children and their perceptions of lying
CHILDREN AND THEIR PERCEPTIONS OF LYING
  • 92% OF FIVE YEAR OLDS SAY IT IS ALWAYS WRONG TO LIE
  • 28% OF TEN YEAR OLDS SAY IT IS ALWAYS WRONG TO LIE
slide3
2/3 OF FIRST GRADERS SAID THEIR PARENTS COULD TELL IF THEY WERE LYING
  • LESS THAN HALF OF SEVENTH GRADERS SAID THEIR PARENTS COULD TELL IF THEY WERE LYING
children s developmental deception skills
CHILDREN’S DEVELOPMENTAL DECEPTION SKILLS
  • EARLY PERIOD (APPROX. 2-6 YRS)
    • VERBAL FANTASY, PRETENSE PLAY, “THINGS YOU AREN’T SUPPOSED TO SAY LIKE “DIRTY” WORDS, ERRORS/MISTAKES
    • TRUTH BELIEVED TO MATCH REALITY WHILE LIES DON’T
    • LIE TO AVOID PUNISHMENT; NOT TO MISLEAD
    • HAVE LITTLE SENSE OF OTHER’S PERSPECTIVE
slide5
MIDDLE CHILDHOOD (APPROX. 5-9 YRS)
    • SOME ATTEMPTS TO MANIPULATE BELIEFS, BUT COMMONLY ACT AS IF TARGET WILL SIMPLY ACCEPT THEIR MANIPULATION
    • OFTEN LACK UNDERSTANDING THAT TARGET MAY BE TRYING TO DETECT THEIR DECEPTION AND MAY EVEN TRY TO DECEIVE THEM
slide6
LATER CHILDHOOD (APPROX. 7-12 YRS)
    • MORE CONVINCING LIARS
    • CAN MANIPULATE TARGET’S BELIEF ABOUT THEIR INTENTIONS--REALIZING TARGET IS TRYING TO PERCEIVE THEIR MOTIVES
slide7
PRE-ADOLESCENCE (APPROX. 10-15 YRS)
    • USE MORE THAN ONE STRATEGY
    • CREATE MORE INTRICATE LIES
    • ACCOUNT FOR MORE CONTINGENCIES
slide8
CHILDREN OFTEN ATTEMPT DECEPTION BEFORE THE SKILLS THEY NEED TO BE EFFECTIVE ARE DEVELOPED. THESE SKILLS ARE:
    • PERSPECTIVE TAKING
    • LANGUAGE SKILLS
    • AN UNDERSTANDING OF INTENTIONALITY
slide9
KNOWLEDGE THAT TARGET DOESN’T HAVE KNOWLEDGE YOU HAVE
  • KNOW WHAT WILL SWAY THEM
  • COMMUNICATE SO AS NOT TO REVEAL INTENT TO DECEIVE
why do children lie
WHY DO CHILDREN LIE?
  • THEY LIE WHEN THE MOTIVATIONAL STRUCTURE IS TILTED TOWARD THE NEED TO LIE--JUST LIKE ADULTS DO
    • YOUNG CHILDREN LIE TO AVOID PUNISHMENT
    • LATER THEY LIE TO GET REWARDS (E.G., CANDY)
slide11
STILL LATER, THEY LIE TO GET LESS TANGIBLE REWARDS--E.G., THINGS WHICH WILL MAKE THEM MORE SOCIALLY ATTRACTIVE
  • PROBABLY THE LAST TO DEVELOP IS THE DESIRE TO LIE TO SAVE SOMEONE ELSE’S NECK
michael lewis studies
MICHAEL LEWIS’ STUDIES
  • STUDIED CHILDREN FROM ALMOST AGE 3 TO AGE 6
  • IN HIS “DON’T PEEK” STUDIES, ABOUT 90% PEEKED. OF THOSE, 38% CONFESSED (MOSTLY BOYS) AND 38% LIED. 24% (MOSTLY GIRLS) HAD NO RESPONSE.
slide13
WITH INCREASING AGE, MORE CHILDREN WERE ABLE TO RESIST PEEKING
  • SKILL AT LYING VARIES GREATLY BUT, LIKE ADULTS, ABOUT 50% CAN LIE WITHOUT BEING DETECTED
  • A SAMPLE OF JAPANESE CHILDREN DISPLAYED THE SAME GENERAL PATTERN BUT MORE CHILDREN RESISTED PEEKING
question
QUESTION
  • IF A CHILD PEEKS AND LIES TO AVOID PUNISHMENT, BUT DOES NOT INTEND TO CREATE A FALSE BELIEF IN ANOTHER PERSON, IS HE/SHE LYING?