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Massively Distributed Database Systems

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  1. Massively Distributed Database Systems Spring 2014 Ki-Joune Li http://isel.cs.pusan.ac.kr/~lik Pusan National University

  2. An assignment • Choose an electronic (or electric) device • Define additional functions with . data storage . communication (infrastructure or ad-hoc) . some computation . and others Do not mind how difficult it would be to implement. • Example

  3. Massively Distributed Databases vs. Distributed Databases

  4. This lecture includes • Distributed Systems and Database Systems • Overview • Synchronization • Consistency and Replications • P2P • Ad-Hoc Network and MANET • Data on Air • Cloud • RESTful • Ubiquitous Computing and IoT

  5. Definition of a Distributed System • Distributed system : 1) A collection of (scalability) 2) independent computers that (heterogeneity) 3) appears to its users as a single coherent system(transparency) • Distributed System versus Parallel System • Separated Operating System vs. Single Operating System • Message Passing vs. Shared Memory

  6. Distributed Systems andDistributed Database Systems - Overview

  7. Why Distributed System ? • Performance • Incremental Growth (Scalability) • 1 single mainframe of price W • N small machines of price W/N • Fault Tolerance • 1 single mainframe : critical weak point • Failure of a machine : replacement by other machines • Geographical Distribution and Availbility • Flexible configuration • e.g. 1 Disk server, 3 Computing servers, 1 Graphic server, etc. • Geographical availibility

  8. Distributed System - Scalibility and Heterogeneity 1.1 A distributed system organized as middleware. Heterogeneity and Scalibility

  9. Distributed System - Transparency Different forms of transparency in a distributed system.

  10. Server C Driver for B Driver for C Driver for A Server B Server A Distributed System : Heterogeneity Application Program or Client Client has to be provided with one different driver for each server

  11. Server C Server B Server A Distributed System : Heterogeneity and Object-Oriented Approach Application Program or Client Predefined interface Wrapping with predefined interface Encapsulation : Object-Oriented Approach

  12. Software Concepts • An overview of • DOS (Distributed Operating Systems) • NOS (Network Operating Systems) • Middleware

  13. Network Operating System (1) • General structure of a network operating system. 1-19

  14. Network Operating System • Two clients and a server in a network operating system. 1-20

  15. Middleware • General structure of a distributed system as middleware. 1-22

  16. Middleware and Openness • In an open middleware-based distributed system, the protocols used by each middleware layer should be the same, as well as the interfaces they offer to applications. 1.23

  17. MultitieredArchitectures: Example

  18. Alternatives of Multitiers Architectures 1-29

  19. Multicomputer Operating Systems • General structure of a multicomputer operating system 1.14

  20. Distributed Shared Memory Systems • Pages of address space distributed among four machines • Situation after CPU 1 references page 10 • Situation if page 10 is read only and replication is used

  21. Comparison between Systems A comparison between multiprocessor operating systems, multicomputer operating systems, network operating systems, and middleware based distributed systems.