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How Languages are Learned and Acquired

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How Languages are Learned and Acquired

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  1. How Languages are Learned and Acquired

  2. The Interactive Approach: Making Learning Meaningful • Interactive Learning in Content-Based Language Classes • Teachers must create language learning opportunities that connect to the students’ communities and content areas to build literacy and increase knowledge.

  3. The Interactive Approach: Making Learning Meaningful • Content-Based Language Learning • CBI for ESL serves as a bridge to mainstream classes: • promotes higher level thinking • allows for meaningful discussion of students’ cultures • reinforces thinking through the 4 skills CBI Mainstream Classes ELL’s

  4. The Interactive Approach: Making Learning Meaningful • A Synthesis of Sociocultural and Psycholinguistic Theories and Practices • Teachers can choose methods, strategies and activities that best enhance second language learning in their classrooms.

  5. The Interactive Approach: Making Learning Meaningful • Influence of Cognitive Researchers • Krashen: • meaning over form • comprehensible input (i+1) • ample opportunity for meaningful interaction • Wong-Fillmore: • 1st and 2nd language acquisition: Language Acquisition Device (LAD) vs. general cognitive skills

  6. The Interactive Approach: Making Learning Meaningful • McLaughlin: second language learning involves social interaction • Language is used to communicate meaning • Need for language-rich environment • Children should experiment with language • Vygotsky: sociocultural perspective: • self-talk • zone of proximal development (scaffolding)

  7. The Role of Interaction in Language and Literacy Learning • Communication systems consist of language and nonverbal cues • Language • learned and used through interaction • used to construct and transmit knowledge • Nonverbal cues • are meaningful • visual, olfactory, gestural, kinesthetic

  8. Interaction and Roles of L1 & L2 • Meaningful Interaction • Linguistic input becomes comprehensible through interaction • An active learner who must use language to communicate a purpose negotiates meaning • An interaction leads to multiple perspectives • The same interaction may afford learner different outcomes depending on their orientation to, receptivity to and interaction with the context of the interaction.

  9. Interaction and Roles of L1 & L2 • Authentic Interactions • Instruction should: • make tasks that require the natural use of certain essential grammatical features in communication • provide time for noticing gaps in knowledge of grammar • provide sufficient and task appropriate feedback which will focus learner attention on form

  10. Interaction and Roles of L1 & L2 • Authentic Interactions • Strategic communication skills can be developed by: • using background knowledge (schemata) • combining semantic and pragmatic based strategies • stretching what is known to compensate for what is not known

  11. Interaction and Roles of L1 & L2 • Authentic Interactions • Sociocultural Perspective - learner comes to understand how language is used to: • present various perspectives on the world • transform one’s reality • voice ones’ position • act in one’s own interests and the interests of one’s community

  12. Interaction and Roles of L1 & L2 • Relevant Interaction • Psycholinguistic framework • Chamot & O’Malley – build linguistic and learning skills through content study • Sociocultural framework • Critical literacy and language awareness empowers students to effect social change and challenge existing hierarchies

  13. Interaction and Roles of L1 & L2 • Reflection and Action • Reflective skills allow for learner to develop better self-awareness and control, automaticity and ability to make changes in their linguistic behavior • Reflection plays a major role in organizing and converting past experiences into knowledge and new understanding.

  14. Interaction and Roles of L1 & L2 • Feedback: • should not be limited to linguistic forms • should encourage learners to express their thoughts as they learn to manage their language production FEEDBACK

  15. Second Language Teaching Strategies • Traditional approaches: text-book driven and teacher-controlled with little opportunity for interaction

  16. Second Language Teaching Strategies • Dialectic approaches: • learning practices facilitated by instruction • include interactive, discovery, hands-on learning • use cooperative learning, thematic lessons, process writing , performance/ portfolio assessment, critical thinking, learning strategies