Exam Review Questions Textbook pages25-28 Q 4-7,9,12-22,29,35,36 Page 106 Q 5-7
5. What are the functions of the skeletal system? • Axial Skeleton protection,attachment, movement, support • AppendicularSkeletonattachment, movement, support, blood cell formation & mineral reservoir. • (calcium & phosphorus)
6. What are the functions of the vertebral column? • Support and protect spinal cord
7. Name the types of bones. Which type is important for movement? • Long (movement- muscle attachment) • Short • Flat • Irregular
9. How do the axial and appendicular skeletons differ in terms of their main function? • Axial Skeleton protection,attachment, movement, support • AppendicularSkeletonattachment, movement, support, blood cell formation & mineral reservoir. • (calcium & phosphorus)
13. What would you find in the medullary cavity of a long bone? • Yellow bone marrow
14. What factory affect the stability of a joint? • Shape of bones • Area over which the bones are in contact • Flexibility of the ligaments • Other soft tissue (muscles, tendons, joint capsule) how strong , loose they are… • The more mobility the less stability.
Name and describe the types of synovial joints in the body. Which type of joint has the most movement? • Gliding- btwntarsals/carpals • Hinge- elbow joint • Pivot- radioulnar joint • Condyloid- radius and carpals • Saddle- carpal-metacarpal joint • Ball & socket- shoulder,hip (most movement)
16. How do fibrous, cartilagenous & synovial joints differ? • Fibrous- no movement (skull) • Cartilagenous- limited movement (vertebral column) • Synovial- freely moving.
18. Where is articular cartilage found and what is its function? • Ends of long bones • Protect the ends of bones, reduce friction
19. Where is synovial fluid found and what is its function? • In a synovial joint • Lubricates, reduces friction and provides nutrients to joint
20. Where are the bursae commonly found? • Found where two structures rub together • Reduce friction
21. A tendon connects ______to _____. • muscle to bone
22. A ligament connects _____ to _____. • bone to bone
29. Name the layers of fascia in a muscle and identify where they are found. • Epimysoium- around the whole muscle • Perimysium- around a muscle bundle • Endomysium- around each muscle fiber (cell)
5. What are the opposites of these joint movements: flexion, abduction, medial rotation? • Extension • Adduction • Lateral (external rotation)
6. Describe pronation of the forearm. • Medial rotation of the radioulnar joint, not the wrist.
7. How do concentric, eccentric and isometric muscle contractions differ? • Concentric- muscle shortens during contraction • Eccentric – muscle lengthens during contraction • Isometric- muscle does not move during contraction