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European drug report package. A comprehensive analysis on the drugs problem in Europe. Country overviews. Prevalence barometers. Health and social responses profiles. PODs – perspectives on drugs. Mass media campaigns Hepatitis C treatment for IDUs Preventing overdose deaths

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european drug report package
European drug report package
  • A comprehensive analysis on the drugs problem in Europe
country overviews
Country overviews

Prevalence

barometers

Health and

social responses

profiles

pods perspectives on drugs
PODs – perspectives on drugs
  • Mass media campaigns
  • Hepatitis C treatment for IDUs
  • Preventing overdose deaths
  • Emergency health consequences of cocaine use
  • Trends in heroin treatment
  • Characteristics of high-risk cannabis users
  • New EU drugs strategy
  • Controlling new psychoactive substances
  • Models for the legal supply of cannabis
  • Synthetic cannabinoids
  • Synthetic drug production
the european drug policy landscape in 2013
The European drug policy landscape in 2013
  • After 30+ years with heroin centre stage in Europe — there are now signs of a decline
  • The use of other ‘old drugs’ is overall stable but with some new developments
  • New psychoactive substances are on the increase
cannabis use in europe

Cannabis use in Europe

77 million adults ever used cannabis

15.4 million young adults used last year

3 million daily cannabis users
3 million daily cannabis users

Young males

over represented

cannabis rising treatment demand
Cannabis – rising treatment demand

Second most frequently reported drug – all treatment clients

Cannabis

Cannabis

cannabis treatment range of approaches
Cannabis treatment: range of approaches

Internet-based,

brief interventions,

family therapy, etc.

Evaluations

on the increase

cannabis supply
Cannabis supply
  • Domestic production reported by almost all countries

Increased violence,

organised crime involvement

drug supply reduction shift away from drug squads
Drug supply reduction: shift away from drug squads

…towards organised crime agencies

with drug supply reduction mandate

opioids

Opioids

Europe’s biggest drug problem

1.4 million problem opioid users

heroin use signs of a decline
Heroin use – signs of a decline

Opioids >

  • Fewer new clients entering treatment
  • Ageing treatment cohort
  • Less heroin injecting

Heroin users in treatment

overdose deaths decreasing
Overdose deaths decreasing
  • Overdose deaths:
  • From 7 700 (2009)
  • to 6 500 (2011)
heroin signs of a decline
Heroin: signs of a decline

Opioids >

Lowest quantities seized for a decade

heroin replaced by
Heroin replaced by…
  • Stimulants
  • New drugs
  • Other opioids
  • etc.

Fentanyl

disruption in decline in new hiv diagnoses
Disruption in decline in new HIV diagnoses

2011 HIV outbreaks in Greece and Romania continued into 2012

hepatitis c a hidden epidemic
Hepatitis C – a hidden epidemic

Prevalence between 18–80% in IDUs

new hepatitis c treatments
New Hepatitis C treatments

New generation of medicines

being developed

preventing overdose deaths
Preventing overdose deaths
  • Take-home
  • naloxone programmes
1 2 million in drug treatment in europe
1.2 million in drug treatment in Europe

Opioids >

Substitution treatment is first choice for opioid users

Other forms of treatment available in all countries

substitution treatment increasing provision
Substitution treatment – increasing provision

730 000 in opioid substitution treatment

Coverage for around 50%

of POUs

substitution treatment in prisons
Substitution treatment in prisons

Available in most countries,

but restrictions exist

stimulants

Stimulants

2.5 million young Europeans used cocaine in the last year

1.8 million used ecstasy

1.7 million used amphetamines

stimulants increasingly complex market
Stimulants: increasingly complex market

Stimulants >

Predominant stimulant drug by last year prevalence among 15-34 year olds

wastewater analysis
Wastewater analysis
  • Recent studies support thisgeographicaldistribution of stimulants
cocaine decline high prevalence countries
Cocaine decline (high-prevalence countries)

Stimulants >

  • Recent surveys
  • Treatment presentations
  • Hospital emergencies
  • Deaths
cocaine changes in trafficking
Cocaine: changes in trafficking?
  • Diversification in trafficking routes
signs of more methamphetamine
Signs of more methamphetamine

Amphetamine

Methamphetamine

synthetic drug production precursors and pre precursors
Synthetic drug production: precursors and pre-precursors

As one chemical comes under scrutiny, producers will simply switch to an alternative

new drugs

New drugs

Around 280 new drugs monitored by the EWS

73 new substances in 2012
73 new substances in 2012

30 synthetic cannabinoids

in 2012

emergence of synthetic cannabinoids in eu
Emergence of synthetic cannabinoids in EU

Powders manufactured in

and imported from China

Mixed with, or sprayed onto, herbs

Packaged for sale as ‘legal highs’

synthetic cannabinoids new developments
Synthetic cannabinoids: new developments
  • Resinous products
  • Tablets resembling ‘ecstasy’
  • Cannabis sprayed
risk assessment of nps
Risk assessment of NPS

Formalised guidelines

Health risks, social risks, organised crime

Diffusion potential

  • 4-MA (2012) – 21 deaths
  • 5-IT (2013) – 21 deaths
in summary
In summary
  • Drug use remains high by historical standards,
  • but some positive changes apparent:
  • Record treatment levels, declines in new heroin use and erosion in injecting
  • Stable or declining trends for most ‘old’ drugs
  • BUT
  • ‘New’ problems are emerging linked to ‘new’ psychoactive substances
  • Concern unemployment and service cuts could lead to re-emergence of ‘old’ problems