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Uganda. The Pearl of Africa. Uganda is rich in natural resources, such as natural gas and oil, as well as agricultural land. The Nile River splits the country into North and South, with distinct cultures in each.

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    1. Uganda The Pearl of Africa

    2. Uganda is rich in natural resources, such as natural gas and oil, as well as agricultural land. • The Nile River splits the country into North and South, with distinct cultures in each. • Uganda was nicknamed the “Pearl of Africa” due to its resources and amazing scenery. - Uganda is located in central eastern Africa.

    3. Current population: 33.8 million • Median Age: 15 years • Religion: Christian, Animist, Muslim • Languages: English, Luganda, AcholiLuo, Swahili, other indigenous languages • 13% of the population live in cities. Others live in villages or are nomadic populations. The land outside of cities and villages are referred to as the “bush.” The bush, Uganda

    4. Uganda is one of the most diverse countries in Africa • There are over 26 major tribes and ethnicities We will concentrate on the Acholi people who live in Northern Uganda

    5. 1862: British explorer John Hanning Speke comes to Uganda to discovers the source of the Nile • 1894: Uganda becomes a British protectorate • The Acholi are known to be good warriors, so the British Army uses them to help quell resistance from other tribes John Hanning Speke

    6. 1962: Uganda gained independence from Great Britain • Milton Obote became the first Prime Minister with King Edward Mutesa II of the Buganda tribe becoming President Milton Obote Prime Minister 1962-1971 King Edward Mutesa II 1st President of Uganda

    7. IdiAmin Dada • 1971: Military General IdiAmin Dada staged a military coup and sent Prime Minister Obote into exile • Amin ruled for 7 years • It is estimated that Amin killed over 300,000 people to maintain his rule That’s almost 43,000 people a year!

    8. 1979: Amin was overthrown by an alliance between Tanzania and the Ugandan National Liberation Army • 1980: Obote returned from exile and became prime minister again • 1981: YoweriMuseveni formed the National Liberation Army and waged a civil war against Obote. Museveni became President and still is to this day. The war cost an estimated 100,000 lives YoweriMuseveni Current President of Uganda

    9. The Acholi tribe was often used in the army, owned their own weapons, and were used to control other tribes • When Museveni took over, he used brutal tactics to disarm the Acholi • The Acholi began to distrust the government, fearing their culture was being taken from them

    10. Fearing the new government, many of the Acholi tribe and others who were a part of the old government of Obote and Amin created guerilla armies • This lead to the formation of the two most well known rebel groups, the Holy Spirit Army and the Lord’s Resistance Army or LRA

    11. Alice “Lakwena” Auma Alice was a tomato seller from the Acholi tribe 1985: She had a vision of a spirit called “Lakwena” who told her to start an army Alice took on the name Lakwena and started the Holy Spirit Army The Holy Spirit Army would sing hymns during battle, anoint themselves in Shea butter and throw rocks like grenades The Holy Spirit Army was defeated by the Ugandan army

    12. Joseph Kony 1985: Joseph Kony was the spiritual advisor to the northern rebel groups After the Holy Spirit Army’s defeat, Kony created his own army called the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) Kony says he is a prophet from God, sent to rule Uganda using the Ten Commandments

    13. Museveni and the government convinced many of the Acholi tribe to work with the government and to disarm • Kony lost his source of soldiers and support for the LRA • The LRA began raiding villages for food and supplies, and kidnapping children to be soldiers and child brides Abduction Drawn by Okonya Paul Chua A former LRA child soldier

    14. The government began to put the Acholi people in internal refugee camps • This was partly to protect the people, but also so the government would know that the Acholi people were not supporting the LRA • 95% of Acholi people were moved into the camps • The camps were guarded by the Ugandan Army who kept strict tabs on the people • They were not allowed to garden too far from the camp due to the LRA stealing from gardens • They were not allowed to have weapons to protect themselves • The LRA could still attack the camps, and the Ugandan army would abuse the people if they suspected they were helping the LRA Ldujo IDP Camp in Kitgum District By: Kato Moses

    15. Causalities of War • 1.5 millionpeople displaced • 20,000 children used as soldiers or child brides By: Okwera Ronald

    16. Noah’s Ark is an example of one of the camps that the Night Commuters would go to • In order to protect themselves from the LRA’s raids, many children commuted from villages into the cities • The center is designed to hold 300 kids, but as many as 4,000 would come at night • These Night Commuters, as the children were called, flocked by the thousands to cities, hoping they would have a village to return to in the morning

    17. Children abducted by the LRA are either killed or forced to kill • Initiations include having to beat to death other people who tried to escape, killing prisoners, or going to raid villages • The children are constantly threatened with death if they even attempt to escape, so many do not By: Kato Moses By: Opoke Ben

    18. Kony evaded the Ugandan Army by moving the LRA into Southern Sudan or the Congo • The Ugandan army could not follow without the other country’s permission • Kony could attack northern Uganda and then retreat to safety • In 2006, the Sudanese government finally gave Uganda permission to pursue Kony into their country

    19. The Aboke Girls • In 1996, the LRA raided an all girls school, called Aboke Girls School • 139 girls were kidnapped • Sister Rachel, a nun at the school, chased down the LRA and managed to negotiate the return of half of the girls • After intense international pressure and pressure from the parents of the girls, the rest were returned in 2004

    20. The last Aboke girl was returned in 2009 • 4 of the 139 girls were confirmed dead, and one is still missing • The 15th anniversary of the Aboke girls is being celebrated, this time with joy as the girls have returned home and are moving on with their lives Ajok was one of the Aboke girls kidnapped. She became one of Kony’s wives, and this is their son. Ajok is one of many of girls who had children during their time in the bush. Aboke girls who have been returned to their families finish school and are given scholarships to continue their education

    21. Peace • In 2004, peace talks began • It wasn’t until 2008 that a ceasefire was reached • At that time, Kony had still not signed the peace treaty

    22. Rebuilding Uganda • The war has happened mostly in the North, causing the South to be able to prosper with limited interruption • While attacks have dramatically decreased since 2008, it is still estimated that over 2,000 people have been killed by the LRA since then • Uganda still has a long way to go to rehabilitate their child soldiers

    23. Uganda has made steps towards reforming the country • Reinstated a multiparty system • They have had huge success in fighting the HIV/AIDS epidemic • Up to 30% of the population used to have HIV/AIDS. That is now down to 6% due to open advertisements about how HIV/AIDS works • In October of 2011, President Obama agreed to send 100 soldiers into Uganda to find Joseph Kony and hopefully put an end to the LRA

    24. E-luminate • This is where YOU come in… • Through E-luminate, you will get to help the children in Uganda have access to a better education • By creating PDF books, videos, Word documents, PowerPoints and more, you will allow the children to begin to return to a normal life

    25. References • First Kill Your Family by: Peter Eichstaedt • • • • • • • • •

    26. Thank you!