The Joy of Travel. Preparation. In-class Reading. After-class Reading. Quiz1. Quiz2. Unit 7. Preparation.
As far as we can see, knowledge can be roughly acquired from two sources: books and experience. The latter is no less valuable than the former. Believe it or not, one of the best means of getting knowledge of the latter is to travel since traveling provides a much more direct means of understanding people, culture and the world. In the modern world, travel is still motivated by the desire to expand one’s horizons, to experience other cultures, and to connect with other people. Like reading a fascinating book, traveling is in many respects an exhibition of man’s fundamental curiosity. To see is to believe. Only through travel can one personally experience and satisfy this curiosity. For example, you must have a lot of idea of what Shanghai is like before you pay a visit there. What’s your first impression of the city? What are you eager to know about it? Well, pay a visit there and you can gain your personal insight and perspective, which can in no case be obtained through other means. Now, you are to have an opportunity to “make a trip” to several world famous cities. Let’s see what we can get during this short journey. (Ask students to open the book to P. 236-237, quickly read the brief introduction about each city. Then, prepare to answer the following questions.These questions are primarily intended to test students’ ability to locate key information from among details. It is advisable to ask students to have something like a contest and see who or which group is the quickest and the best to give the correct answers.)
Now, to have a further understanding of each city, our “guide” puts forward several review questions to test our memory and knowledge.
2. Which city is said to have the cleanest train in the world? What about its speed? (Osaka in Japan, over 210 kilometers)
3. Which city is a city of contrasts? Or in which city can you see the rich and the poor, the sacred and the worldly side by side? (Jakarta , the capital city of Indonesia)
4. Which city is a fascinating mixture of old and new? (Manila)
5. Which city has the largest population? (Beijing , 9 million)
6. Which city can never make travelers feel tired? (Manila)
7. Which city still has the influence of Dutch and Portuguese? (Jakarta)
8. In which city is there a big casino? (Seoul)
9. Which city was originally founded by the Spanish explorers? (Manila)
10. Which city is mainly a commercial and industrial city? (0saka)
11. How many capital cities are mentioned ? What are they ? (4 capital cities, they are Jakarta, Beijing, Manila, and Seoul )
12. Which city has the castle as its tourist attraction? (Osaka)
Through this trip, I am sure you must have got in a good harvest. I also hope in time to come, you will have opportunities to make a real journey there.
Traveling can not only accumulate our knowledge about history, culture, geography, and local traditions, but also bring us many other benefits. For instance, traveling can even develop into an industry called tourism, which is the primary source of national income for some countries. Now you are going to listen to a short passage on “ Benefits of Travel”. While listening, try to fill in the missing parts. Then quickly look through the whole passage again and see what benefits you can obtain from it.
Travel can __________(1 widen) our knowledge and ___________(2 broaden our horizons) which we can never get from books and classrooms. Through traveling we can get the knowledge of ____________(3 geography), customs, cultures, and life-style of different places and countries. In travel, we can make more friends and know more about the _______________(4 development) in other countries and the different ways of thinking. Travel is also one of the best ways of __________(5 pastime). After long period of hard and _________(6 tense) work, we can ___________(7 relax) ourselves in a free ________(8
Furthermore, travel can _____________(13 strengthen) our health. One who keeps him indoors all day long is likely to be sick. By traveling we can get the chance to climb mountains, walk on foot, do more exercises and _________(14 breathe) more fresh air. Especially in recent years, owing to the _____________(15 environmental pollution), more and more people look for clean destinations where they can breathe fresh air and __________(16 admire) nature in its unspoiled state.
Nowadays, with all the comforts _____________(17 available) in route and modern modes of ___________(18 transportation), many people find it more convenient to travel to other places and even other countries just for the sake of _____________(19 pleasure) and sightseeing. To sum up, it is well worth our time and money since traveling is _____________(20 beneficial) to people in so many ways.
As is discussed in the above passage, most people travel mainly for the purpose ofenriching experiences, getting fun, strengthening health or having relaxation. However, have you ever heard traveling can even transform a person? In other words, traveling can create a new self? Well, read the passage “Transformative Travel” and see what changes have been brought about to the author’s life by traveling.
1. How did the author feel before he went on a trip to Aruba? What caused his dissatisfaction ? or what was the author dissatisfied with then? ( para1-2 He felt hopeless and lost. He is dissatisfied with his job and his engagement.)
2. To get released from his distressing situation, the author decided to take a class, where he made his first important decision. What was he determined to do? (para3 Probably under the influence of the counseling course, he decided to quit his job and end his engagement. )
3. When he finally got released, what did he feel then? Why? And how did he cope with the situation? (para 4 He was mixed with both excitement and anxiety. Excited because he enjoyed freedom then. Anxious because he was at a loss as to what to do next. He thus made his second important decision: booking a trip for a week in Aruba)
4. What did he do when he settled on the little island of Aruba? What appeared to be of greatest importance to the author there? (para 6 He made a careful schedule of his daily activities: he spent mornings … . To the author, the most important thing is the freedom to enjoy being different from his usual self. )
5. How many stages of processes for change did the author undergo? (para. 7-14 7. It is advisable to ask students to make a list of the key idea of each stage by following the topic sentence of each paragraph)
What did the author think of his trip to Aruba? What did he learn from this trip? (para. 15 He thought his trip transformed him a great deal and decided his future traveling have some transformative dimension to it so as to continue his growth. )
1. Reading this story, we know the one-week trip to Aruba was rather costly as we know it may take a year for the author to pay it off. Did the author think it worthwhile to do so? Why? (The author believed it worthwhile to make this trip there since he was convinced that a single week in Aruba was worth three years in therapy. One thing that needs to be kept in mind is that the author made this trip not for pleasure or entertainment but for transformation. He just chose a very peculiar way to achieve this purpose and he made it. In this sense, his efforts paid off. What the trip brings in return to him is a new life, a new and promising self, which is something money can’t buy. )
2. What does the title “Transformative Travel” mean? (Travel can change a person’s life. Through his own experiences, the author highly recommends the advantage of travel.)
1. (para. 2 line 5) “but I suppose it was the fantasy of … reality” [explain the emphatic structure “ it was/is …that”]
2.（L12, S1, para4）find + oneself + participle / prepositional phrase [further explain the part “excited by… yet …”]
Examples: Then I found myself surrounded by a dozen boys.
Once or twice I found myself doubting my own judgment.
You’ll soon find yourself without any friends at all if you keep on being so rude to everybody.
3. (para. 6 line 21 ) I really could have been anywhere as long as nobody could reach me …I wanted to do.” [Explain (1) the structure “:could have been …” (2) the meaning of the word “reach” here]
4. L47-48, S3, para11）to see how it felt (feel: to give you the feeling esp. when you touch or experience sth.): to find out what feelings I would have
Examples: Her skin felt cold and rough.
The metal felt smooth and cold.
5. (L52, S2, para12)There are times when = Sometimes
Example: There are times when she makes me despair of the whole thing.
6. (L60, S1, para14) I made changes when I returned that continued the transformation that started while I was in Aruba. [explain the two “ that” clauses. Both are attributive clauses.The first that clause “that continued the transformation… in Aruba” modifies the word changes, separated by when-clause. The second that clause “ that started” modifies the word transformation.]
(stuck, stuck) v. 1.be or become fixed; fail to work properly陷住，卡住2. push (sth pointed) (into, through, etc)插，(尖物)刺入 3. (cause to) be or become joined or fastened with, or as with, paste, glue, or other substance (使)粘着，附着 n.short thin branch used as a support, as a weapon or as firewood棍， 棒，手杖
Usage: stick …on fasten to with paste, etc把…粘在…上 stick sth. in/through (sth)； stick sth. into sth: push or thrust ,esp. sth pointed into, through, etc sth插入或刺 穿（某物）stick to ① not abandon or change sth; keep to sth坚持② (cause sth to) become fixed, joined or fastened with a sticky substance粘贴在…上 ③be faithful to(one’s ideals, a friend, etc.)忠于，信守 ④紧跟，紧随
E.g.: (Hand out the material and ask the students to decide on the meaning of each sentence. Then teachers make a summary.)
It looks as if I’m stuck in the job of clearing up this mess.
He was stuck awkwardly in the middle. (他进退两难)
Our car was stuck in traffic for hours.
I was stuck over/on/in/with one word in that crossword puzzle.
The football fan stuck some pictures of the football stars on the wall by his bed.
Just stick the stamps on all those letters.
The key has stuck in the lock.
Windows sometimes stick so that you can’t open them.
Powdered sand sticks to people’s hair and skin.
If you stick to the truth, you’ve nothing to fear.
Make sure you stick to the same story when you’re questioned a second time.
Once we’ve sorted out a program of events, let’s for Heaven’s sake try to stick to it.
We should stick to the main road since we’re not sure of the way.
Don’t keep changing your companions; get a few good friends and stick to them.
Derivative: sticky a.粘（性）的；（天气）湿热的；困难的，棘手的
v. ①to invite sb. to compete against one in a fight, match, etc. ②to question the rightness, legality, etc., of; to dispute 对…提出质疑 n. ①an invitation to compete in a fight, match, etc. ②a questioning of the rightness, legality, etc., of sth.
Usage: give a challenge 挑战 accept/ meet/ respond to/ take up a challenge 应战 challenge + n. / pron.( sb.) to sth./to do sth.
E.g.: (Hand out the material and ask students to work on them by themselves after class. Teachers may summarize its usage in class by giving the Chinese translations of some sentences and by asking students to do oral translation in English. )
Our school team challenged the local champion team to a football match.
I challenge you to race me across the lake.
The champion swimmer challenged the world to beat him.
The difficulty of putting our ideas into practice challenged us to explore a new method.
No one has ever challenged his authority in these matters.
I’m afraid it is out of place to challenge your superior’s orders.
Exploring outer space is/presents a great challenge to mankind.
He accepted his friend’s challenge to swim across the river.
The government will have to meet the challenge of rising unemployment.
One of the biggest challenges facing the present government is that of creating new jobs opportunities. .
Derivative:challenging a. needing the full use of one’s abilities and effort; difficult, but in an interesting way
v. to change completely in form, appearance, or nature
E.g.: One form of energy can be transformed into another.
Manual labor has transformed her completely. She is no longer what she used to be.
A beard transformed him beyond recognition.
Responsibility transformed him from a happy-go-lucky boy into a capable leader.
We were surprised greatly at the plans that were transformed overnight into reality.
Derivative: transformative a. transformation n. transformer n. 变压器
Hints: ① “Transform” can only be used as a transitive verb. It denotes the great, sudden, mysterious, thorough and fundamental change of a person or thing in appearance, form and nature. ②Draw students’ attention to the prefix trans-, which means “across, on or to the other side of”. More example (It is advisable to ask students to make a list ): transplant / translate / translation / transfer / transport / transportation / transition / transmit /transmitter / transmission / transistor / transparent(a.)
Exercise: Fill in the following blanks with the words listed below. Change the form where necessary.
transform, transfer , transmit , transplant, transport, transparent
2) The head office has been ________(transferred) from Leeds to London.
3) Parents _________(transmit) some of their characteristics to their children.
4) In terms of modern technology, the medical means can ________(transplant) almost every organ of the human body.
5) As a result of speed in ______________(transport/transportation) and communication, the world is getting smaller and the peoples living in different parts of the earth are becoming more closely linked together
6) As is known to us all, iron _________(transmits) heat.
7) It was _________(transparent) that she was displeased. The remarks you had made on her performance must have offended her.
8) The land, factories and others sorts of production goods have been _____________(transferred) from the well-to-do families to the state.
9) In recent years his perceptions of the world have undergone a complete ______ (transformation).
10) Experts urged that students be educated on how to prevent sexually__________ (transmitted) diseases such as AIDS.
①pay the whole of (a debt) ② pay in full and discharge from service 付清工资解雇遣散某人 ③ be profitable or advantageous; be successful (No passive) 取得成功， 得到好的结果
E.g.: He had expected to pay off all his debts shortly but as a matter of fact it took him four years.
The employees were paid off just before they quit for the holiday.
Hardly had the bridge been completed when more than 50 employees were paid off.
Stick to your goal and don’t hesitate. Your efforts will pay off in the long run.
John studied hard before the examination, and it paid off. He made an A.
Hints: Draw students’ attention to its third figurative meaning, whose usage students often have difficulty grasping. In addition, review the following phrasal verbs concerning “pay”: pay for:①givemoney, etc. in exchange for 负担…的费用， 补偿… ② receive punishment or suffering for (sth) 为…受到惩罚， 得到…的报应pay back: ①return / repay money ②give the same treatment as received 向…报复，回 报 pay up: pay in full; pay what is owned 全部付清 pay out: to make a large payment for sth. 出钱， 花钱
Exercise: Choose the correct phrases to fill in the following blanks.
2). Sometimes one has to dearly/heavily __________(pay dearly/heavily for) the mistakes he has committed.
3). She knows she wasn’t fair to him in the past, and now she is trying to _______________(pay for) it with kindness.
4). How can I _____________ (pay you back) you for all your kindness and generosity?
5). To his great relief, the monthly installments on the car were eventually ______________(paid up).
6). The damage is due to his neglect of duty, so he’ll have to ___________(pay for) it.
7). He took out an interest-free loan. That is to say, he just needs to _______________(pay back) the principal to the bank.
8). He is a kindly sort of fellow and will probably not try to ______________(pay back) for the insult.
9). He has ______________(paid out) a lot(or large sums of money) on school fees and uniforms
completely and willingly; heart and soul; very earnestly
E.g.: I wish you success with all my heart.
I’ll help you with all my heart.
I love you with all my heart.
Hints: The connotative meaning of the word “heart” is often dealt with, which can be reflected in a large number of its idiomatic phrases or expressions. Besides, a comparison between the word “heart” and “mind” in their application of different contexts is highly necessary. Ask students to do the following exercise first and then based on their understanding, summarize the relevant idiomatic expressions regarding the two words.
Exercise:Please fill in the following blanks with heart or mind.
1) I hope with all my ___________(heart) that you will succeed in the speech contest.
2) He made up his ________(mind) not to keep company with those people any longer.
3) The hero’s death almost broke the _____________(heart) of his mother but she turned her grief into strength and had her youngest son sent to the front.
4) Don’t lose _______(heart). The failure is just temporary and all will turn out well if you put your ________(heart) into it.
5) I don’t think changing one’s __________(mind) indicates a lack of mentalstability.
7) Despite many difficulties on the way, he took _________(heart) and fulfilled the task in time.
8) She took her boyfriend’s ingratitude very much to__________( heart).
9) Please ____________(keep / bear in mind) the instructions the doctor has given you.
10) From the bottom of our _________(hearts) we hope that the friendship between our two peoples will last forever.
11) His manners are rough, but he’s a kind man at ________(heart).
12) Most people agree with him, but to my ________(mind) he departs from the truth at least in that point.
[The following can be referred to when teachers make the summary: (1) Idiomatic phrases concerning “heart”: at heart: in one’s real nature; in spite of appearances; at bottom; in reality break sb’s heart: make sb very sad (get / learn / know sth) by heart: from memory from (the bottom of) one’s heart: sincerely in one’s heart of hearts: in one’s inmost feelings lose heart: be discouraged set one’s heart on: be very anxious to do / have take heart: be confident take … to heart: be much affected by it; grieve over it to one’s heart’s content: as much as, or as long as, etc one wishes (2) Idiomatic phrases concerning “mind”: keep / bear sth in mind (remember sth); change one’s mind (change one’s purpose or intention); make up one’s mind (come to a decision) to my mind in my eye have …in mind be considering sth. or sb. as suitable for set one’s mind on sth. put all one’s attention to sth. ]
E.g.: The talk was all right in itself but it went on too long.
The fair(交易会) is in itself a symbol of the development of China’s foreign trade.
In a sense, an encyclopedia(百科全书) is a library in itself.
Hints: Compare the following easily confused phrases: by oneself / itself:单独地， 独自地of itself /oneself: 自愿地，自主地 for oneself: 为自己地，代表自己to oneself: 独 享地
Exercise: Choose the correct oneself phrases to fill in the following blanks
1) It took him almost two years but he fulfilled the tremendous task all ______ (by himself)
2) Victory will not come _________(of itself).
3) The door closed __________(of itself) and the light went out____________(of itself).
4) First of all, to live a meaningful life one should not live ___________(for oneself) alone.
5) We suspected that Mary knew the answer to the problem, but she kept it _______(to herself).
6) When Bob insisted on going, Joan left him ________(to himself).
7) The problem is unimportant _________(in itself) but its long-term effects could be very serious.
8) The wooden house stands there all __________(by itself) and the machine in it works ________(by itself).
v. ①use force in order to move sth away from oneself (forward or to a different position) ②try to make (sb) do sth (that he does not want to do; drive or urge)
Usage:push sb to do sth / into doing sth; push sb on /ahead / forward(continue on one’s way; move forward with haste or determination) push sb about / around: (infml) (try to control sb in an unpleasant way, as by giving orders; order sb about / around)
E.g.: We pushed him hard to take up science.
She was pushed into going to university by her parents.
We’ll be pushed to get there in time. (have difficulty getting …)
Let’s push on — it’s nearly nightfall.
If we push forward, we can get home before dark.
Whatever happens, we must push ahead with our plans to increase production.
We must push on with the work if we are to finish it on schedule.
Stop pushing me around！I’m quite able to make my own decisions！
v. (1). to add strength or support to 增强；加强 (2). to strengthen (a group, esp. an army) by the addition of men, equipment, etc. 增援
Usage: reinforce … with
E.g.: Their arguments are strongly reinforced by the latest trade figures.
Newspapers like this tend to reinforce people’s prejudices.
This cement building is reinforced with bands of steel.
It is easy to direct a child’s pattern of behavior by reinforcing good behavior with some kind of reward.
To put forward a convincing argument, one must reinforce it with facts.
The rescue team was reinforced by 12 experienced miners.
Derivative: reinforcement n.
mean; have (a particular purpose or plan) in mind
Derivative: intention n.
Usage: intend to do/ doing sth; intend sb / sth to do(for)sth. [often used in “ be intended to do(for) sth. ] / intend sb. sth. / intend that-clause (usually in subjunctive mood); intend sth as sth (be intended as)
E.g.: We intend her to set out at once./ We intended her for departure at once.
What do you intend to do next?
Can you iron out the misunderstanding? They intend you no harm.
The fund is intended for emergency use only.
They intend that this reform (should) be carried through this year.
My remark was not intended as a joke！
Jim’s gift of flowers was intended as a way of saying that he was sorry that he had quarreled with Mary.
I had intended to complete the assignment during the weekend, but something unexpected occurred.
Exercise: Translate the following sentences into English.
1) 我本来要将那本书还给你的，可是我那天太忙了。(I was to have returned you the book, but I was too busy that day.)
2) 我本打算昨天来的， 但我必须参加一个会议。(I intended to have come yesterday / I had intended to come yesterday, but I had to attend a meeting.)
3) 他本来计划下一个月出国，但他突然病倒了。(He had planned to go abroad / planned to have gone abroad next month but he was suddenly taken ill.)
4) 到街道拐角处时，我本想慢点开车， 但我当时正和一位朋友谈话，忘记了。(When I reached the corner, I had meant to drive / meant to have driven slowly, but I was talking to my friend and forgot.)
(infml) yield in argument, point of view, or claims
E.g.: The time for the action has arrived now. It’s too late to back off, I’m afraid.
After several hours’ negotiations, they finally backed down on their unreasonable demands.
After being shown conclusive evidence, the other side had to back down.
The manager of the auto company is not willing to back off his prediction of a considerable gain.
Hints: Review the related phrase back up we learned in Unit 2. back up: ① (cause to) move backwards e.g. He carefully backed his car up into the garage. ②give moral, physical support to e.g. Harris will back me up wholeheartedly as he used to. The lectures of this course are to be backed up by a comprehensive programme of field work.
n. ① the way in which a situation or problem is judged, so that proper consideration and importance is given to each part 视角，观点 ② a view, esp. one stretching far into the distance 远景， 景观 ③ 透视画法
Usage: in perspective / in its right perspective 正确地；如实地; 不夸大，恰当[常和动 词see, view, put 等搭配；反义表达为out of perspective] in/from the perspective of 从…角度看lack perspective 缺乏眼力
E.g.: The comments of foreign critics often give us a new perspective on our literary achievements.
The new evidence put an entirely different perspective on the case.
From the top of the hill you can get a perspective of the entire park.
We should see events in their historical perspective.
Things have changed a lot, so we should view the situation from a new perspective.
The objects in the background are in/ out of perspective.
The drawing of the house is good, but thecaris out of perspective.(不协调的)
We must get/keep the problem inperspective; it’s not really that serious.
Passage One The Romance of Train Travel
In Passage I, the Romance of Train Travel, the author first comments on one of the characteristics of modern world---- speed. Then he states that many of us actually want to slow down. Each time we hear the sound of a train whistle, we’ll have a strong sense of nostalgia. That’s because there is a sense of romance about a train that doesn’t exist on a modern jet plane, and train whistles may remind us of the good old days when life was slower. Therefore, many railroad companies are taking advantage of the nostalgia for train travel to offer unique tours for travelers who aren’t in a hurry and who enjoy the romance of the past. Describing the romantic train travels, the author brings us back to those unforgettable trips on trains in the past. Now you are going to listen to some descriptions and then decide on which train the following situations often happen.
(1) This train travel is specially offered to those interested in religion, passengers can have a chance to visit the place where Prince Gautama became Buddha. (The Great Indian Rover”)
(2). On this train, passengers can enjoy the natural beauty, they can even take photographs or have picnics during the trip. (Toy Train, a train of India)
(3). This train travel was usually associated with excitement and danger; the traveling was the scene of mystery or crime. It was really like an adventure, giving people a sense of romance. (Orient Express)
(4). This train takes you 7 days. Passengers can go sight-seeing to palaces, cities, where they can receive warm welcome. (Palace on Wheels )
(5). This train offers creative, entertaining games, in which the travelers act as “detectives”, helping to participate in solving the mystery and catch the criminal. (Mystery Express running from New York to Montreal)
(6). On this train, travelers on board can enjoy an extra advantage, they can hear a lecture on a country’s history and culture. ( Trans-Siberian Special from Mongolia to Moscow )
a. forming part of the character of a person or thing; typical n. distinguishing feature
Usage: be characteristic of (be typical of)
E.g.: Windy days are characteristic of March.
It’s characteristic of her that she never complains.
It is characteristic of her to keep herself indoors all day long when in low spirits.
Good planning is one of the characteristics of a successful business.
The major characteristic of jazz is its heavy rhythm(强烈的节奏).
Hints: Draw students’ attention to the two easily confused words: character and characteristic. Unlike characteristic (n.), which often describes objectively the specific feature or quality of sb or sth., character refers to the combination of qualities which make a particular person, thing, place, etc., different from others or that are regarded as valuable or admirable, such as honesty, etc. It can be interpreted in Chinese as “ 品德 ，品质，性质，性格” etc. Roughly speaking, character is the sum of all the specific characteristics of a thing or person. In addition, character can have such connotations as “a person who is very unusual or well-known(人物，知名人士), a person in a novel or play（角色）, etc. The following two phrases deserve to be discussed as well. in character
Exercise: Fill in the following blanks with character and characteristic.
1) They resemble each other in appearance but are strikingly different in _________(character).
2) Cheerfulness is one of the girl’s distinguishing _________(characteristics) while the boy is usually of a strong __________(character).
3) The style of this painting is fairly _______ (characteristic) ofhis early work.
4) The fat actor was in ________(character) because the ______(character ) he played was supposed to be fat.
5) It really distressed my heart when I saw some people who even gave up their noble _______________(character) in return for the material benefits.
6) The ability to use language is one _________(characteristic) that distinguishes man from animals.
7) Let me list some of the _____________(characteristics) many outstanding top-achievers have in common.
8) The whole ____________(character 性质或特色) of the village has changed beyond recognition since I was last here.
n. timetable, calendar, agenda or program for work v. plan , arrange
Usage: on schedule: on time; as planned or expected ahead ofschedule: ahead of time; before the planned or expected time behind schedule: after the planned or expected time; not on time (according) to schedule: as planned be scheduled for / be scheduled to do sth
E.g.: We are all aware of the importance of completing the project on schedule / ahead of schedule.
This workshop has fulfilled its output quota(生产指标) two months ahead of schedule.
The train was half an hour behind schedule.
If everything goes according to schedule, we should have the work finished by the end of the month.
We were then badly behind schedule in our work. (当时我们远远落后于原定的工作进度。)
The arrival of the steamer is scheduled for the 18th instant. (客轮定于本月18日达到)
The president is scheduled for/ to make a speech tomorrow.
cause (sth such as an illness); cause to advance or improve引起，助长、促进
E.g.: The sudden weather brought on his fever again.
Reading in poor light may bring on a headache.
The warm weather should bring on the crops nicely .
Hints: Review the following phrasal verbs concerning bring : bring about: cause (sth); cause to happen 导致,使发生 bring out:①reveal, show 显示出来(尤指某种优秀的品质) ②offer to the public出版, 推出 bring up: ①( Br.E ) educate; raise (a child) 养育, 抚养, 教育②mention or introduce (a subject) 提出, 提供，介绍
Exercise: Fill in the following blanks with the bring on, bring up, bring about, bring out .
1) Land reform ________(brought about) a great change in the lives of the common
2) The tutor(家庭教师) ___________(brought on) the backward boy until he was normal
3) Difficulties and hardship can _________(bring out) a person’s best qualities.
5) The farm machinery plant is _________(bringing out) a new walking tractor next month.(农械厂下个月将生产出一种新型手扶拖拉机。)
6) The question of practicing economy was again _______(brought up) at yesterday’s meeting.
7) The warm sunshine has ________(brought out) all the flowers on the fruit trees.
8) The crisis in our industry was _________(brought on) by intense competition from foreign producers.
9) The People’s Publishing House will soon ________(bring out) a new series of children’s books.
n.①sth. that may help one to be successful or to gain a favorable result ②a favorable condition resulting from a particular course of action; gain; benefit
Usage: take advantage of：(1). to make use of, profit from (充分)利用(有利条件等) (2). to make unfair use of sb. or one’s quality, exploit欺骗某人，捉弄某人to advantage: to a good effect, favorably(用比较、衬托等)使优点突出地；有利地 to sb’s advantage: to one’s favor 对某人有利 gain / get / win / have / obtain an advantage over or have the advantage of have a better position or opportunity胜于…，优 于…；比…占优势，占上风 give sb. an advantage over: give sb a better position or opportunity 给某人优势
E.g.: (When explaining the usage of the phrase “take advantage of”, teachers are advised to ask students to translate the following sentences into English. Then give some other English examples to further elaborate on its other expressions.)
1). 它常常利用我缺乏经验的弱点。(He often took advantage of my lack of experience.)
2) 我趁今天天气晴好油漆了门窗。(I took advantage of the fine weather today to paint the doors and windows.)
3). 他总是充分利用他对手(rivals)所犯的错误。(He always takes full advantage the mistakes made by his rivals.)
5). 汤姆的大学教育使他较其他未上大学的男孩子占优势。（Tom’s university education gave him an advantage over boys who had not been to a university.）
Other examples to refer to in explaining other phrases:
6) This painting is seen to (better) advantage from a distance.这幅画远处看特别好（更加显眼）。
7) What they suggest would only be to their advantage and not ours. 他们的建议只会对他们有利，而不会对我们有好处。
8) He has the advantage of the other teachers in the group when he talks about American literature. 他谈论起美国文学来比小组里的其他教师内行得多。
9) Her teaching experience gave her a big advantage over the other applicants for the job.
10) This method has the advantage of saving a lot of fuel.
11) The disadvantages of the proposal outweigh the advantages. (弊大于利)
Derivative: advantageous adj. (to)
Antonym: disadvantage n.
E.g.: The old machine was fixed up and put to work again.
They fixed up a temporary platform at one end of the room so that the performance could be carried on.
I hope you can fix up an appointment with the director recently.
The hotel attendants fixed up the tired travelers for the night.
Hints: Compare it with fix on / upon (1. decide about; choose 决定，确定 2. look intently at; gaze at 专注，紧盯). E.g. Have you fixed on where to hold the party? After a long discussion we fixed on this site for the new reservoir. The trouble is that I can’t fix my mind on what I am doing.
v. (1). to bring back into use or existence; to put back into a former position or condition恢复；使回复 (2). to put (esp. an old building, piece of furniture, or work of art) back into its original state修复； 整修 (3). to give back归还, 交还
Usage:restore … to … ; restore+(prep) in / into / out of
E.g.: The relations between the two countries were restored to normal.
Troops were sent to restore law and order to the city.
The temple has been carefully restored to its original state.
The stolen property was restored to its original owner.
After the holiday, I feel completely restored to health.
Exercise: Fill in the following blanks with restore or recover.
1) The new manager’s job is to ________(restore) the company to profitability.
2) He has completely ________(recovered) from his bad cold and will start to work next week.
3) They ________(restored) the house to the way it might have looked in the 18th century.
4) The army was able to _____(recover) any of the territory it lost.
5) One of his eyes was injured in an accident, but after a delicate operation, he quickly ____________(recover )his sight.
6) I’ll see to it that the lost child will be _______(restored) to his own parents.
7) The region soon _________(recovered) from effect of the earthquake.
8) The manager was asked to resign but was later ______(restored) to his former job.
9) He only ________(recovered) his position of eminence（卓越，显赫） among his fellow scientists in the last day of his life.
a.① having life (usu. as a modifier) 有生命的，活的 ② charged with electricity 带电的 ③ (of sth broadcast) not recorded in advance (on tape or records) 现场播出的，（广播内容）非预先录音的 (4). of interest or importance at the present time 当前大家讨论的
Hints: Compare the three easily confused words: alive, live, living. Living may refer only to the condition of not being dead. E.g. He is the greatest living novelist in England. My grandfather is still living at the age of 93. By extension, living may also describe things that are full of energy and significance or are actually operative. e.g. a living language. Normally used as a predicative, alive applies to all degrees of life, from that which is barely evident to that which implies the very utmost of vitality and power.（适用于各 种程度的生命力，从微小的生命迹象到极富生命力）e.g. The wounded man was unconscious but still alive when taken to the hospital. She is so alive that her presence in the room brought a lot of laughter and fun.Live, which is usually placed before the noun modified, may describe the condition of appearing in the flesh rather than being depicted in photographs, paintings, etc. e.g. It is the first time the little child has seen a live monkey. In television and radio, a live program is one being performed at the time of transmission rather than appearing in a taped performance. When applied to certain things, live carries the idea of vital functioning. E.g. a live wire （火线）， a live topic (热门话题) (形容活的生物出现时的状态，指真的，活生生的，而不是照片、图画等描绘 的情景或死后保持下来的状态；指在电视、收音机中播送时实际在场的人； 或指正发挥重要作用的，正常运行的）
1). They brought down an enemy plane last night. The pilot was captured ____(alive).
2). The lion only eats ______(live) animals.
3). It was said that several black people were burnt _______(alive) in the accident.
4). The dog was playing with a _______(live) rabbit.
5). The sleeping pattern of a __________(living) creature is determined by the food it eats.
6). While politicians argue about nuclear weapons, ordinary people are simply concerned with staying __________. (alive)
7). The laboratory is conducting experiments with a dozen ______(live) monkeys.
8). The wilderness is a ________(living 活生生的) museum of natural history.
9). Sunlight, air and water are very important to ________(living) things.
10). Peace talks are a ______(live) issue today.
v. to get on or into a bus, ship or plane ,etc. n. ①long thin flat piece of cut wood; ②committee, council, group of people controlling a company or some other organization ③(cost of) daily meals(in rented accommodation) (包饭的)伙食
Usage: on board: aboard (on/in) a ship, bus, airplane, etc. above board: honest and open, without trick 正大光明，诚实的，不耍手腕的across the board: (infml) including everyone or all; so that all are included.包括一切人在内地, 普遍地
E.g.: (Hand out the material and ask students to work on them after class first and teachers make a brief summary in class.)
We boarded a taxi and headed for the airport immediately.
The passengers will board the airplane at gate 9 at noon.
She has a seat on the board of directors of a large company.
He pays ＄40 a week for board and lodging.
As long as everything is above board, I don’t mind; but I hate anything underhand.
On his first night on board he didn’t sleep very much. Most of the night he lay awake.
He wasn’t on board the ship when it sailed.
The ship set sail after all the passengers came on board.
They asked for a pay increase across the board.
①arrive(at); stop one’s journey (at a place) （车）进站，到达，停下 ② (of a vehicle or boat) move to (one side) (车)移向路一边，（船）向岸边靠
E.g.: The train is just pulling into the station.
The bus pulled into the side of the road to let the cars pass.
The express from Beijing pulled in on schedule.
Find a good place to pull into for some tea on the way to London.
Hints: Review the pull phrases. pull out: move away; (of a train/ boat, etc.) leave a station pull up: (cause to) come to stop (使)停住
e.g. The bus pulled upsharp at the foot of a bridge.
The driver pulled up by the side of the road to give an old woman a lift.
The driverpulls the bus up only in time to avoid hitting the child.
The train bound for Shanghai will pull out in five minutes.
n. ①state of being in danger or difficulty and requiring help 危难，困境 ② suffering caused by lack of money, food, etc. 贫困，困苦 ③ great pain, sorrow, suffering, etc. 极大的痛苦，悲伤, 苦难v. (usu. passive) cause great pain, sorrow, suffering, etc. to (sb./sth)使痛苦，使悲伤， 使忧虑
Usage:be distressed to do sth.; be distressed about sth.; in distress; to sb’s distress
E.g.: (Hand out the material and ask students to work on these examples first. Then teachers make a summary in class )
The lifeboat went out to a ship in distress(遇难的) after receiving the distress signal she sent out.
The Government acted quickly to relieve the widespread distress(减轻灾难) caused by the earthquake.
The girl’s leaving home was a great distress to her family.
To her distress, her husband engaged in drug trafficking again.
If the storm continues on the mountain, the climbers will be in distress(in danger) by morning.
The public is distressed about/at the potential economic impact of this move.
The news of his death distressed us greatly.
I was most distressed to hear the sad news of your father’s death.
Derivative: distressful = distressing adj. causing distress
v.① talk (about one’s own achievements, abilities, etc.) with too much pride and satisfaction. 自夸，自吹自擂 ②possess (sth. to be proud of) 以拥有……而自豪 n.
Usage: boast of/about sth; boast that… make a boast of
E.g.: One boasts of his wealth, another boasts of his learning.
Achievements only mean something in the past. There is nothing to boast of .
He boasted of being the best player in the team./He boasted that he was the best player in the team.
The city of York can boast (of) many historic buildings.
A fishing village 30 years ago, it now boasts (of) an economic and industrial center.
His boast that he was the strongest man in the village turned out not to be true.
He often makes a boast of the gold medals he has won in the boxing matches.
1. Complete the following sentences with the appropriate forms of the words according to the Chinese meanings given in brackets. The first letter has been given to you. (20 points)
(1) Winning the c___________ (竞争) put an end to his financial problems.(competition)
(2) The new name was meant to give the party greater public a_____（吸引）.(appeal)
(3) My new laptop can p ____________(处理)information much more quickly than my old computer. (process)
(4) The new threat on the horizon is u_________________(失业) （unemployment）
(5) He made public c__________(承诺) of what he intended to do so it would be harder to back down. (commitments)
(6) After all the guests had left, she experienced a feeling of complete i_____________(孤独,孤立). (isolation)
(7) I am sure that this meeting will contribute to the r__________（加强） of peace and security all over the world. （reinforcement）
(8) This difficulty c________（挑战，要求，需要）my mind to find an answer. （challenges）
(9) This season’s e__________ (娱乐) includes five new plays and several concerts of Chinese and Indian music. (entertainment)
(10) In recent years the film industry has undergone a complete t______________（改变，转变）. （transformation）
a. pay off (vi.)
b. of oneself
c. from/in the perspective of
d. at heart
3． Write from your memory some of the words, phrases or sentences of para.11and para. 15 of In-Class Reading “Transformative Travel” (40 points )
I pushed myself to ⑴____________new ways of being. I ⑵_____________________and pretended to be a different person. I ______________________________(3) just to see how it felt. Whatever I would usually do(4)____________________________, I forced myself to (5)______________________.This(6)_________________________________, that I could do anything I wanted.
I decided that much of my future traveling would have some transformative dimension to it. Although it is possible to (7)_______________________________________in a single week, transformative change (8)_________________________________. I promised myself that I would (9)_________________________________in order to (10)_____________________.
I. Fill in the blanks with proper phrases according to the Chinese given in brackets. (20 points)
1. The trip on the Mystery Express is a safe, entertaining, and very c_________(创造性的) game. (creative)
2. We see each other o__________（偶尔）, but not as often as we used to. (occasionally)
3. Many companies encourage their employees to use alternative means of t___________(运输), rather than the car. ( transportation/transport)
4. The badly neglected furniture and paintings have all been carefully r___________(修复，重建) (restored)
5. This kind of exercise is most c__________(挑战性的), and therefore is a good test of the students’ c__________(能力). ( challenging, competence )
6. Ireland b___________(以…自豪) beautiful beaches, great restaurants and friendly locals. (boasts)
7. She used to tell us that she was d___________（下降，引申为 “是…的后裔”）from some Scottish Lord. (descended )
8. She expressed much concern that the ship might be in d__________(危难， 困境) (distress)
9. Aruba has many sports f__________ (设施)for sailing, deep-sea fishing, water-skiing, golf, tennis and horse-back riding. （facilities）
1. fix up
2. on board
3. gain an advantage over
4. bring on
5. pull out
III. Write from your memory some sentences, phrases or words of para.1-2 of Passage I “The Romance of Train Travel” (40 points)
If there is one (1) ______________________of the modern world that makes our lives different from our grandparents, it is probably speed. We are always (2)___________, and we don’t have much (3)_______________________________________. We want to get there, and we want to do it fast! (4)_____________________________ of mass transit systems all share a common goal. They are all trying to provide us with faster and faster ways to (5)_______________________________________.
Nevertheless, many of us actually want to slow down.. Although (6)_______________________or when we (7)__________________________________, we also complain about always being in a hurry. (8)_______________, we (9)___________________________—clear and high in the night air—and we feel sad. There is strong sense of nostalgia for other places and other times, (10) _______________________________.
Directions: Write ONE paragraph of the topic “Travel”. The topic sentence of this paragraph is given to you and you are required to supply the essential information and complete the paragraph. Before you write, remember to go over the writing basics discussed before (e.g. topic sentence, unity and coherence ).
Considering the several factors, travel is of vital importance to both individuals and the country. _________________________________________________________________