Reading instruction for students with significant cognitive disabilities
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Reading Instruction for Students with Significant Cognitive Disabilities. Carly Roberts. Background. Reading instruction for students with moderate to severe developmental disabilities has an overemphasis on sight words and lacks a clear focus

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Background
Background Disabilities

  • Reading instruction for students with moderate to severe developmental disabilities has an overemphasis on sight words and lacks a clear focus

  • It is difficult to focus on authentic reading and beginning skills during adolescence when the focus is often on transition skills

  • Middle school students with severe disabilities may not have skills to engage with books

  • You can adapt age appropriate novels/books to create meaningful literacy lessons

  • Systematic prompting procedures (time delay) are used to teach sight words but can also be incorporated in story based lessons

  • Task analyses can be incorporated into lesson plan formats


The article
The Article Disabilities

  • Browder, D. M., Trela, K., & Jimenez, B. (2007). Training teachers to follow a task analysis to engage middle school students with moderate and severe developmental disabilities in grade-appropriate literature. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 22, 206-219.


Purpose
Purpose Disabilities

  • Train teachers to monitor their own use of a task analysis for sharing literature typical of middle school language arts and to promote the skills of the participating students for engaging with books

  • Modify age-appropriate books and lessons using the Universal Design for Learning approach

  • Teachers use systematic prompting to engage students in a story


Teacher participants
Teacher Participants Disabilities

  • Teachers who served middle school students with moderate or severe intellectual disabilities or autism

  • Teachers certified in special education

  • Limited literacy preparation


Student participants
Student Participants Disabilities

  • 6 students total

  • Non-readers

  • Verbal or non-verbal

  • IQ below 55

  • 12-14 years old

  • 2 used AAC


Design
Design Disabilities

  • Single-subject design

  • Multiple-probe across participants

  • Data taken on teacher behavior and student behavior

  • Three phases

    • Prebaseline prior to training

    • Baseline after general training

    • Observations after intervention


Procedures
Procedures Disabilities

  • Adapted grade level novels

    • Text modified

    • Symbols added

    • Vocabulary definitions embedded within

    • Utilized story retelling

  • Created Task Analyses

    • Teachers used lesson plan format and followed steps on the task analyses




Results
Results Disabilities

  • All three teachers improved their percentage of steps accurately followed for the task analysis when the template was provided

  • All 6 students significantly increased their number of independent responses during literacy lessons

  • Teachers reported satisfaction with the intervention


Teachers
Teachers Disabilities

  • Pre-baseline: literacy instruction as usual

  • Baseline: attended literacy instruction workshop, planned lesson with general education teacher, given adapted books

  • Intervention: trained using lesson plan task analysis

  • How effective was the intervention?


Students
Students Disabilities

  • Independent responses during literacy lessons

  • How effective was the intervention?


Important big ideas
Important Big Ideas Disabilities

  • Story based lessons are a way to increase meaningful participation of students in literacy lessons

  • Adapting grade level books can make these lessons age appropriate for adolescents

  • Task analytic instruction and systematic prompting can be used in literacy lessons for students with moderate to severe disabilities

  • Task analyses can help teachers monitor their own instruction


Some questions to consider
Some questions to consider… Disabilities

  • Does this strategy seem practitioner friendly?

  • In this study, the interventionists modified the books, would teachers be able to do this? Do they have the time?

  • Do you think self-monitoring by teachers leads to better educational outcomes for students? What are other ways they can do this besides the task analyses?

  • Can teachers incorporate this strategy in an inclusive environment?

  • What are other ways in which we can engage students with moderate to severe disabilities in meaningful literacy instruction?


Some questions to consider1
Some questions to consider… Disabilities

  • Are there ways to adapt other grade level appropriate materials for students with significant cognitive disabilities?

  • How do we currently prepare teachers to teach reading to students with significant cognitive disabilities? What implications do these findings have on the way we prepare pre-service teachers?