11/23 生物的消化、吸收代謝機制 環境污染評估 – 個體、族群、群聚及生態系層次. Assessment of pollution impacts. Impacts on the individual level ： Lethal effects Death ︰Sublethal effects Physiological stress Tumours Developmental abnormalities.
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︰Lethal effects (LE)
Measurement of toxicity –
LT50 (median lethal time)
LC50 (median lethal concentration)
LE50, LE100, LE1 (effectiveness)
Cumulative percentage mortality of mussels, Mytilus in (I) 10-2M, (ii) 10-3M, (iii) 10-5M, (iv) 10-6M solution of zinc sulphate (Clark, 1997).
MFO –mixed function oxygenase systems酵素系統(from Rand, 1995)
Scope for growth of Mytilus (c) in (b) stations in pollution gradient at Narragansett Bay (Clark, 1997).
The sewage sludge dump site in the Firth of Clyde (Clark, 1997).
Species abundance plots of the benthic macrofauna the sewage sludge dump site in the Firth of Clyde (Clark, 1997).
- Sublethal effects
‧Molecular biomarkers, e.g.
Detoxication (detoxification) –
mixed function oxygenases (MFO)
other detoxication enzymes
Heat shock proteins
‧Pysiological responses, e.g.
Scope for growth, activity
Variation Comparing responses Ratio range
Age old : young 0.01 – 1000
Sex male : female 0.5 - ≧5
Genotype more : less resistance 1-≧100
Acclimation with : without 1-≧10
Duration short : long term 1-100
‧Synergy and antagonism
- Population density or/and biomass
- Focus on “Key species”
High conservation interest to humans
High commercial value
Dominant species in the community
Indicator species (bioindicator)
★ Structural end points, e.g.