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Holography. Seminar on 2 nd December 2009. Topics Discussed. INTRODUCTION Hologram & Holography History of holography Photography vs Holography HOLOGRAM- Recording & Reading Usages Types of hologram Holographic Memory Holographic Versatile Discs (HVD) Applications.

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Seminar on 2nd December 2009

topics discussed
Topics Discussed...


Hologram & Holography

History of holography

Photography vs Holography

HOLOGRAM- Recording & Reading


Types of hologram

Holographic Memory

Holographic Versatile Discs (HVD)


hologram holography
Hologram & Holography
  • A hologram is a flat surface that, under proper illumination, appears to contain a three-dimensional image.
  • Holography is the Nobel award-winning science
  • The hologram presents a true three dimensional recreation of the original object.
history of holography
History of holography
  • Invented in 1948 by Dennis Gabor for use in electron microscopy, before the invention of the laser
  • Leith and Upatnieks (1962) applied laser light to holography and introduced an important off-axis technique
conventional vs holographic photography
Conventional vs. Holographic photography
  • Conventional:
    • 2-d version of a 3-d scene
    • Photograph lacks depth perception
    • Film sensitive only to radiant energy
    • Phase relation (i.e. interference) are lost
conventional vs holographic photography1
Conventional vs. Holographic photography
  • Hologram:
    • Freezes the intricate wavefront of light that carries all the visual information of the scene
    • To view a hologram, the wavefront is reconstructed
    • View what we would have seen if present at the original scene through the window defined by the hologram
    • Provides depth perception
  • Recording:
    • Two laser beams used (Signal and Reference)
    • Data encoded on signal beam via Spatial Light Modulator
    • Second beam interfaces with reference beam through the volume of photosensitive recording medium


    • Reference beam used to diffract off recorded gratings reconstructing stored array
areas of holographic applications
Areas of Holographic Applications
  • Security
  • Entertainment
  • Packaging (Consumer Goods Brand Protection)
  • Gifts
  • Tax Stamp
  • Labels & Tapes
areas of holographic applications1
Areas of Holographic Applications
  • Decoration
  • Art and Interactive Graphics
  • Architecture
  • Sports Events
medical applications
Medical Applications
  • Holographic Techniques X-Ray Holography
  • Endoscopic Holography Internal Hologram Recording Endoscope External Hologram recording Endoscope Multiplexed Holography For Medical Tomography Holography in Ophthalmology Diffractive Bifocal Intraocular Lens Holography in Dentistry Holography in Otology Study of Tympanic Membranes
  • Holography in Orthopedics
hologram reflection vs transmission
Hologram – Reflection vs. Transmission
  • Transmissionhologram: reference and object waves traverse the film from the same side
  • Reflection hologram: reference and object waves traverse the emulsion from opposite sides

View in Transmission

View in reflection

3 4 embossed holograms
3.4 Embossed Holograms

Widely used in most security applications.

3 5 integral hologram
3.5 Integral Hologram
  • Made from a series of photographs of an object. These are usually transparencies.
3 6 rainbow holograms
3.6 Rainbow Holograms
  • Very practical holograms
  • Displaying three-dimensional images
  • Images are reconstructed by white light.
computer generated holograms
Computer Generated Holograms
  • Holograms produced with the help of computer
  • Used for developing 2D and 3D holograms.
multiplex hologram
Multiplex Hologram
  • Depicting the holographic storage of photographic information.
  • Produced by combining a large number of photographs in a holographic manner.
holographic storage background
Holographic Storage - Background
  • Holographic Imaging discovered in 1947 by Hungarian Physicist
  • Original Theory was to improve electron microscopes
  • Holographic images on toys, credit cards, magazine covers, art, etc.
holographic memory
Holographic Memory
  • storing 1 terabyte (TB) data in a sugar-cube-sized crystal.
  • Data from more than 1,000 CDs could fit on a holographic memory system.
  • recording multiple images in the same area utilizing light at different angles
  • capable of recording and reading millions of bits in parallel
  • Data transfer rate: 1 GB/sec
holographic data storage
Holographic Data Storage
  • uses three-dimensional holographic images to enable more information to be stored in a much smaller space.
  • holography records and reads over a million bits of data with a single flash of light.
  • High storage densities and fast transfer rates, combined with durable, reliable, low cost media
  • 50 hours of high definition video on a single disk, 50,000 songs on a postage stamp, or 500,000 x-rays on a credit card. Holographic storage makes it all possible.
storage trends
Storage Trends:
  • The future is storage-centric, stored data is the heart of a modern network.
  • By 2014 the average US household will have about 12 Terabytes of content stored
  •  Up to 1,600 Terabytes may be required for a complete digital movie production at 4K resolution
  • By 2015 personal content will greatly exceed commercial content and sharing of this content will multiple enormously total storage requirements.
holographic versatile discs hvd
Holographic Versatile Discs (HVD)

0,7 GB

9 GB

30~50 GB

What is next ?

holographic versatile discs hvd1
Holographic Versatile Discs (HVD)
  • few hundred movies on an optical disc? That's the goal of the Holographic Versatile Disc (HVD)
  • (1TB) of data onto a single optical disc - Half of the capacity would be enough to record six channels of TV for five and a half days non-stop
  • HVD disc could hold as much data as 200 standard DVDs
  • Transfer data at over 1 gigabit per second, or 40 times faster than a DVD.
holographic versatile discs hvd2
Holographic Versatile Discs (HVD)

Page Data

1 Bit Data

Volumetric RecordingLayer






Page data are recorded into the volumetric recording layer in Holographic recording

Data are recorded on to the surface as bit by bit in CD/DVD System



Conventional Optical Disc

applications of holography
  • Optical computers Will use holograms as "circuit elements". Parallel processing is made possible because when a hologram is addressed, all the information comes out simultaneously
applications of holography1

Communication Holography

applications of holography3
  • Mostly the holographic techniques have been used for biomedical applications.
  • X-ray holography
  • Endoscopic holography
  • Three dimensional images of biological specimens
  • Holography is useful for measurements for biomedical specimen.
applications of holography4
  • Holograms are made inside live organs through optical fibers, providing more details than any previous alternate techniques.
  • Holographic interferometry is used in numerous laboratories for non-destructive testing. It visually reveals structural faults without damaging the specimen.
  • Instantaneous growth rate of a live plant can be directly observed through a hologram.
applications of holography5
  • Anti-counterfeiting in credit card is now a common practice.
  • Holographic microfiche for high density information storage is more attractive then conventional microfiche.
  • Holographic scanners are used in store check-out counters for reading the bar codes
zebra hologram
Zebra hologram
  • A 2-foot-by-3-foot colour Zebra hologram contains a staggering 2 terabytes (2 trillion characters) of data.
  • Zebra's "virtual camera" records a 3-D image file, like a map, from 500,000 slightly different perspectives. Each shot is encoded on a laser, focused through a spherical lens and burned onto a 1-millimeter section of plastic called a hogel.
future applications of holographic technology
Future Applications of Holographic Technology
  • holographic televisions
  • Holographic cinematography
  • Holographic projector
  • holograms will revolutionize storage capacities.
  • Optical or holographic computers
  • holographic security methods
  • Using holograms in museums and exhibitions with animated multimedia content.