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Chapter 4. Socialization. Proper Manners For Dating. A man should not sit down at the table in a restaurant until the woman is seated. A man should always pull out a woman’s chair for her and see that she is served first.

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chapter 4

Chapter 4



Proper Manners For Dating

A man should not sit down at the table in a restaurant until the

woman is seated.

A man should always pull out a woman’s chair for her and see that she

is served first.

A man should never let a woman carry anything heavy; she should

only carry a small package and her coat.

A man should help a woman put on and take off her coat.

A man always leads when dancing.

A man should always open a door for a woman and let her pass in

front of him.


How do we know socialization is important?

Harry Harlow’s famous experiment


Anna and Isabelle

Case Studies on Isolated Children


Socialization and the Self

  • All three theoretical perspectives agree that socialization
  • is needed if cultural and social values are to be learned
  • Functionalist Perspective
  • Conflict Perspective
  • Symbolic Interactionism

conflict perspective

Don’t upset the existing social class structure!


Symbolic Interactionism and Socialization

  • Developed in the early part of the twentieth century by
  • Charles Horton Cooley and George Herbert Mead
  • The self-concept
  • The looking-glass self
  • Significant others
  • Role-taking (the imitation stage, the play stage, and the game stage)
  • The generalized other

Where does the self-concept come from?

  • Self-concept: the image you have of yourself as having an identity
  • separate from other people

Where does the self-concept come from?

  • Looking-glass self: an image of yourself based on what you think others think of you

Cooley’s Looking-Glass Self

3 Step Process:

We imagine how we appear to others

We imagine the reaction of others to our (imagined) appearance

We evaluate ourselves according to how we imagine others

have judged us


Mead pointed out that some people are more important than others to us

  • Significant others: those people whose reactions are most important to your self-concept

What is role taking?

  • Role taking: assuming the viewpoint of another person and using that
  • viewpoint to shape the self-concept

How do we learn the ability for role taking?

  • According to George Mead, it’s a 3 step process

Imitation stage:

around the age 1 or 2


2. Play stage:

Around 3 or 4 years


When do we start to internalize how to behave in social situations?

  • Generalized other: integrated conception of the norms, values, and beliefs of
  • one’s community or society

Mead – What is the self?

  • According to George Mead the “self” is made up of two parts: the “me” and the “I”
  • the “I” is myself as I am…the “me” is myself as others see me

The Family and Socialization

  • First exposure to the world and the primary agent of socialization
  • Sharing

Socialization in Schools

  • Hidden curriculum:the informal and unofficial aspects of culture that
  • children are taught in school

Peer Group Socialization

  • In family and school kids are subordinate to adults, in peer group they
  • engage in give and take relationships

The Three Stooges

Call of Duty: Black Ops

Cool Dad


Mass Media and Socialization

Our perceptions of he ideal body types seem to be largely a product of media socialization.

Discuss how television, magazines, CDs, and video games reinforce these images.

Give examples from your experiences of how the media has socialized Americans to admire certain figure and body types.



  • Total institutions:people separated from the rest of society and
  • controlled by officials in charge
  • Desocialization: the process of giving up old norms, values, and behaviors


  • Resocialization: the process of adopting new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors

Anticipatory Socialization

  • Anticipatory Socialization:the voluntary process of preparing to accept
  • new norms, values, attitudes and behaviors