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Solutions. IB Chemistry: Chapter 1 Section 1.5. What parts make up a solution?. Solution is a mixture of two components. 1. Solute: less abundant component, the substance being dissolved 2. Solvent: more abundant component, the dissolver Solutions in water are called aqueous ( aq ).

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solutions

Solutions

IB Chemistry: Chapter 1 Section 1.5

what parts make up a solution
What parts make up a solution?
  • Solution is a mixture of two components.
    • 1. Solute: less abundant component, the substance being dissolved
    • 2. Solvent: more abundant component, the dissolver
    • Solutions in water are called aqueous (aq).
concentration
Concentration
  • As more and more solute gets dissolved, the solution becomes more concentrated.
  • When the solvent can no longer dissolve any more solute, it is saturated. (If less solute is dissolved, unsaturated.)
  • Solution can dissolve more solute than usual under particular circumstances – supersaturated.
molarity
Molarity
  • Molarity is a term we use to describe concentration.
  • M = mol/dm3, Molarity = moles (n) of solute dissolved in 1 dm3 of solution.
  • What is the molarity of 2.98g of NaCO3 in 500cm3 of solution?
dilutions
Dilutions
  • Sometimes, we need a diluted solution for a particular procedure.
  • In order to dilute, you add water to a more concentrated solution.
  • The equation we use to determine how much concentrated solution we need is:
                  • M1V1=M2V2
types of mixtures
Types of Mixtures
  • Classified by:
    • Size of the particles
    • Whether they exhibit the Tyndall effect
types of mixtures1
Types of Mixtures
  • Solution:
      • Particles are evenly distributed and do not separate on standing
      • No Tyndall Effect
      • Example: food coloring and water mixture
solution example
Solution Example

Notice how you cannot see a distinction between solute and solvent. It is the same throughout the solution.

types of mixtures2
Types of Mixtures
  • Suspensions:
      • Particles are not evenly distributed. Particles are suspended but will eventually settle into layers
      • Exhibits Tyndall Effect
      • Examples: Dirt and water mixture
suspensions
Suspensions

The larger particles in a suspension settle out over time. Particles are only physically combined.

types of mixtures3
Types of Mixtures
  • Colloids:
      • Particles are not evenly distributed. Particles are suspended but will eventually settle into layers
      • Exhibits Tyndall Effect
      • Examples: Dirt and water mixture
colloids
Colloids

Looks like a solution to the naked eye. Particles are suspended. The particle size is the “in betweener”, larger than a solutions’ particles but smaller than a suspensions’ particles.

what is this tyndall effect
What is this “Tyndall effect”?
  • Light scattering by particles.
  • Found in colloids and suspensions, but not solutions.
hydrates
Hydrates
  • Hydrates are ionic compounds that have water molecules absorbed into the crystal lattice.
  • Hydrates are still solid, just have certain amounts of water attached to the ions.
  • An example of a hydrate is Copper (II) Sulfate pentahydrate:
        • CuSO4 ● 5H2O
hydrates1
Hydrates
  • An example of a hydrate is:
        • CuSO4 5H2O
        • This means that for every 1 unit of copper sulfate, there are 5 units of water.
        • Or, for every 1 mole of copper sulfate there are 5 moles of water.
        • Solve for the molar mass. (The dot does not mean multiply, just add the mass of water to mass of copper sulfate.)