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  1. Objectives- the Student Will • Describe psychoactive drugs their history: including animal examples • Analyze the 4 categories of psychoactive drugs and give examples of each • Analyze the difference between physiological and psychological addiction

  2. Psychoactive drugs • Drugs change feelings, perception, motivation and other body and mind functions

  3. chapter 5 Classifying drugs Psychoactive drug Substance capable of influencing perception, mood, cognition, or behavior Types Stimulants speed up activity in the CNS. Depressants slow down activity in the CNS. Opiates relieve pain. Psychedelic drugs disrupt normal thought processes.

  4. Different cultures= different practices • Jerusalem • Hasidic men • Completion of holy Torah • dancing for hours in the streets • Religious ecstasy

  5. Culture • South Dakota • Lakota(Sioux) adults • naked • in the darkness • crushing heat of the sweat lodge • Euphoria, transcendence of pain, connection with Great Spirit

  6. Culture • Amazon Jungle • Young man training to be shaman (religious leader) • takes whiff of hallucinogenic snuff • from virola tree bark • Trance and communicate with animals, spirits and supernatural forces

  7. Early drug states • All aimed at release of ordinary consciousness • Cultures different • Such practices=Religious connection • HOWEVER attempts to alter mood and consciousness are universal • William James and Nitrous oxide (laughing gas) • Waking consciousness and different consciousness

  8. Altered states of Consciousness • 1960’s attitudes changed • Altered states of consciousness- Psychology and physiology of psychoactive drugs • Psychoactive drugs- a drug capable of influencing perception, mood, cognition, and behavior • Changes body chemistry • Reasons for taking them vary- Decrease pain Psychological escape, comfort, religion

  9. Humans aren’t only ones getting high…psychological research shows • Baboons ingest tobacco • Elephants love alcohol in fermented fruit • Rabbits seek hallucinogenic mushrooms

  10. Classifying Drugs= 4 groups • 1stSTIMULANTS • speed up C.N.S. activity • Intense pleasure, self confidence, • Cocaine, crack, speed (amphetamine), MDMA ( ecstasy) • Legal ones- caffeine, nicotine

  11. Dangers with stimulants • Frightening hallucinations, paranoid delusions • Increase frequency and dosage • Addictive, effect heart, blood signaling to the brain

  12. 2ndDepressants • Slow mental and physical activity of the body by inhibiting the central nervous system • Alcohol, Barbiturates (sedation-sleeping pills),benzodiazepines (antidepressants-minor tranquilizers) • Inhibits C.N.S. as a results slows down mental and physical activity

  13. Examples of Alcohol

  14. Alcohol effects • Loose inhibitions- loose self-monitoring • Talkative, quiet, abusive, friendly • Combination of alcohol Ecstasy= problem= why? • motor skills diminish- D.U.I.

  15. 3rdOpiates • Mimic endorphins • Morphine, heroin, codeine- made from poppy • Highly addictive • Analgesic- pain relief • Started out as Bayer aspirin • Euphoria but can think clearly, cognitive • Take through needle or orally

  16. Example Opiate

  17. 4th Drug classification- • Psychedelic- TIME AND SPACE • Produce change by altering perceptions, creating hallucinations, and blurring the boundary between self and the external world. • Most use NEROTRANSMITTER Serotonin • LSD (acid)-PCP( angel dust)- psilocybin (mushrooms), Marijuana- mild stimulant or sleep

  18. Emotional reactions vary= Trip

  19. 82% OF Americans have tried marijuana

  20. chapter 5 Your turn What kind of drug is alcohol? 1. Stimulant 2. Depressant 3. Opiate 4. Psychedelic

  21. chapter 5 Your turn What kind of drug is alcohol? 1. Stimulant 2. Depressant 3. Opiate 4. Psychadelic

  22. Physiology of Drug effects • Tolerance- need more and more to get the same effect • Withdrawal- uncomfortable physical and mental symptoms that occur when drug usage stops

  23. chapter 5 Physiology of drug effects Psychoactive drugs work by acting on neurotransmitters. They can. . . Increase or decrease the release of neurotransmitters Prevent the reabsorption of excess neurotransmitters by the cells that release them Block the effects of neurotransmitters on receiving cells Bind to receptors that would ordinarily be triggered by a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator

  24. chapter 5 Cocaine’s effect on the brain Blocks the brain’s reuptake of dopamine and norepinephrine, raising levels of these neurotransmitters. Results in over-stimulation of certain brain circuits and a brief euphoric high When drug wears off, depletion of dopamine may cause user to “crash.”

  25. Reactions to drugs vary • Body weight • Metabolism • Initial state of emotional arousal • Physical tolerance of the drug • Number of times a person has taken it • Environmental setting • Mental set- expectations for taking it • Think-drink effect- Men more belligerent when thought drinking tonic water

  26. chapter 5 Psychology of drug effects Reactions to psychoactive drugs depend on several factors. Physical factors such as body weight, metabolism, initial state of emotional arousal, and physical tolerance The number of times a person has used a drug Environmental factors such as where and with whom one uses a drug Mental set or expectations of a drug’s effects

  27. Summary • 4 classifications of drugs • Examples of effects • Physiology vs. psychology off drugs