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1. Define motivation as psychologists use the term today, and name four perspectives useful for studying motivated behav PowerPoint Presentation
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1. Define motivation as psychologists use the term today, and name four perspectives useful for studying motivated behavior.
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Motivation is the energizing and directing of behavior. The instinct, drive-reduction, arousal, and hierarchy of needs perspectives offer insights into motivated behaviors.

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Instincts are rigidly patterned, complex behaviors found throughout a species. Early instinct theorists, influenced by Darwin’s theory of natural selection, tried but failed to classify human behaviors as though they were propelled by such instincts. The underlying idea – that genes predispose species – typical behavior – is still influential.

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- physiological needs create aroused psychological states that drive us to reduce or satisfy those needs- internal stability = homeostasispushed to reduce drive = satisfying hungerpulled by external incentive = smell of cooking food

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Arousal theory helps explain the motivation for behaviors that do not reduce immediate physiological needs or tension states. Curiosity-driven behaviors, for example, suggest that too little stimulation can motivate people to seek higher level of arousal.

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- pyramid shaped sequence in which lower-level needs, such as hunger and thirst, are more compelling than higher-level needs, such as the need to love or to be respected-not universal, but, provides framework for thinking about motivated behaviors