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  1. Opening Agenda • Things to Get: • Textbook: Adventures in the Human Spirit • Handout from the front of the table • Things to Do: • Opener: Intro to the Enlightenment • Class work: Influence on the Revolutions • Exit Slip

  2. ReviewMatch the following names with the correct term Velazquez Bernini Bach Caravaggio Jean Baptiste Lully Handel Palace of Versailles Rembrandt Christopher Wren Vivaldi Violin Virtuoso Las Meninas Oratorio Ecstasy of St. Teresa Conversion of St. Paul Hall of Mirrors St. Paul’s Cathedral Organ Ballet The Night Watch

  3. ReviewMatch the following names with the correct term Velazquez Bernini Bach Caravaggio Jean Baptiste Lully Handel Palace of Versailles Rembrandt Christopher Wren Vivaldi Violin Virtuoso Las Meninas Oratorio Ecstasy of St. Teresa Conversion of St. Paul Hall of Mirrors St. Paul’s Cathedral Organ Ballet The Night Watch

  4. Pg. 294: Top of the page, beginning with “It is a Scene…” 1)Nobility life during the 18th century was: a. Leisured decadence, parties, elegant gardens, town houses, country manors b. restrictive, poor, and barely able to survive c. noble and well respected by all social classes d. seen as the work of the devil and to be avoided at all cost

  5. 2) Spirit of Enlightenment is defined as: • people became more religious b. reason over pleasure, perfect society with intellect c. people had more fun and “lightened up” d. emotions were seen as the guide to truth

  6. 3) How did aristocratic life differ from middle-class life? a. Middle class were advocates of reason; aristocratic society devoted to artful pleasure. b. Middle class were devoted to sinful pleasure; aristocratic society was devote and religious

  7. Pg. 296: Key Concept (in green) 4) What was the Enlightenment’s philosophical goal? • educate citizens b. keep poor in a place of ignorance c. increase the strength of the absolute monarch d. increase the strength of the church

  8. 5) What did thinkers feel an Enlightenment education would lead to? • communism and war • general peace and prosperity • war between kings • poverty and war

  9. 6) What type of world government could Enlightenment ideals lead to? a. absolute monarchy and beheadings of those who opposed the king b. equal rights and democracy with universal education c. communism, where everyone had the same rights and education but little freedom d. an educated society where laws were not needed since everyone would be smart and do the right thing.

  10. 7) Complete the following sentence: “Kant believed that world peace required only the application of sufficient ________________.”

  11. The Enlightenment and Revolutions • Between the 1700 and 1800, the world was drastically transformed by intellectual, mechanical, social, and political revolutions.

  12. While watching the following video, answer the question below in your notes: • What was the Enlightenment? • How is the Enlightenment defined? •

  13. Why? • During the 1600’s, Absolute monarchs lived in lavish courts that were decadent and self serving. • Long term effect: • France: Lavish court life was disconnected from the average individual • France’s national debt grows • New Political Thought develops

  14. The Enlightenment • Emphasized the mind’s ability to reason • Secular concerns • Main ideas: • Freedom from tyranny and superstition • Belief in goodness of human nature • Equality of men

  15. Society went Baroque… so society became Classical!

  16. Characteristics of the Neoclassic Period • Reaction to the Baroque Period caused… • Political thinkers to ponder Revolutions to create democracies and republics (a la Greece and Rome) so that people would have a voice in government • artists, musicians, and architects wanted to emulate the clean, uncluttered style of Classical Greeceand Rome in their works • If countries are baroque from the Baroque movement, who is paying for art? • The aristocracy were the main patrons of the arts. • Aristocracy: non-royals who have lots of money • The Church and Monarchs were no longer the principle benefactors of the arts due to the political upheaval in Europe at the time.

  17. Baroque or Not? • Picture matching activity • Decide if the image is Baroque or Neoclassic and be ready to explain why.

  18. Origins of Neoclassic Art • Discoveries and publications of and about antiquity also allowed for Classicism to become the new, favored, style. 1. Excavations of the Ruins of Italian Cities 2. Elgin Marbles 3. Johann Winckelmann’s Artists Circle

  19. 1. Excavations of the Ruins of Italian Cities Pompeii in 1748. Herculaneum in 1738.

  20. Pompeii in Cincinnati How did the shapes of bodies get preserved? • ADD IMAGES!

  21. 2. Elgin Marbles Thomas Bruce,7th Lord of ElginBritish Museum, 1806 From the top façade of the Parthenon in Athens.

  22. 3. Johann Winckelmann’s Artists Circle • Artists should “imitate” the timeless, ideal forms of the classical world. • A circle of international artists gathered about him in the 1760s in Rome. German art historian.

  23. Neo-Classical Sculpture Characteristics • Profoundly influenced by ancient art since the Renaissance. • Neo-Classical sculptors avoided the dramatic twisting poses and colored marble surfaces characteristic of late Baroque and Rococo sculpture. • They preferred: • Crisp contours. • A noble stillness. • Idealized white marble forms.

  24. Antonio Canova “Apollo Crowning Himself,” 1781 “Perseus with the Head of Medusa,” 1804-1806

  25. Sculpture Bernini • How are they different? Donatello Canova Michelangelo

  26. How is this statue of George Washington sculptured in the style of Neoclassicism?

  27. Neo-Classical Painting Characteristics • Clean lines • Geometric arrangement • Classical themes with contemporary clothes and settings • Emotion is not the main force in the pieces. • Why? Political leaders of the Enlightenment (right to life, liberty, property) distrusted emotions as a guide to the truth; they relied on human reason.

  28. Propaganda in Art • During the Neoclassical Period art was used to promote ideas for the revolutions of France and America. It was used to persuade people to adopt new political ideas and follow new leaders.

  29. Activity • Get into groups of three • You will be given three pictures and three written descriptions • match the correct picture to its description • Choose ONE painting and write 3 sentences on how this can be seen as a piece of propaganda artwork.

  30. Exit Slip • Should the Elgin Marbles be returned to Greece? Why or why not? • How did sculpture change in the Neoclassic period versus the Baroque? • Why was Pompeii significant in the development of the Neoclassic Period? • Name two ways in which Neoclassic Painting differed from Baroque Painting.