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Oscar Adriani University of Florence & INFN Firenze. LHCf: stato e programmi. INFN CSN1 Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013. Hadronic m odels tuning after the first LHC data (for VHECR). X max as function of E and particle type. Post LHC. Pre LHC. PROTON. Auger Coll. ICRC2011. IRON.

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lhcf stato e programmi

Oscar Adriani

University of Florence & INFN Firenze

LHCf: stato e programmi

INFN CSN1

Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

hadronic m odels tuning after the first lhc data for vhecr
Hadronic models tuning after the first LHC data (for VHECR)

Xmaxas function of E and particle type

Post LHC

Pre LHC

PROTON

Auger Coll. ICRC2011

IRON

1018

1019

T.Pierog,

Cosmic QCD 2013 conference in Paris

O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

hadronic m odels tuning after the first lhc data for vhecr1
Hadronic models tuning after the first LHC data (for VHECR)

Xmaxas function of E and particle type

Post LHC

Pre LHC

PROTON

Auger Coll. ICRC2011

IRON

LHC is really useful!!!!!!!

1018

1019

T.Pierog,

Cosmic QCD 2013 conference in Paris

O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

lhcf physics program
LHCf Physics Program

O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

inclusive photon spectrum analysis at 7 tev and 900 gev

A short review of already published results

Inclusive photon spectrum analysis at 7 TeV and 900 GeV

Forward p0 spectra at 7 TeV

“Measurement of zero degree single photon energy spectra for √s = 7 TeV proton-proton collisions at LHC“

PLB 703 (2011) 128

“Measurement of zero degree single photon energy spectra for √s = 900 GeV proton-proton collisions at LHC“

PLB 715 (2012) 298

“Measurement of forward neutral pion transverse momentum spectra for √s = 7TeV proton-proton collisions at LHC“

PRD 86 (2012) 092001

O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

data vs mc comp 900gev 7tev
DATA vs MC : comp. 900GeV/7TeV
  • None of the model nicely agrees with the LHCF data
  • Here we plot the ratio MC/Data for the various models
  • > Factor 2 difference

η>10.94

8.81<η<8.9

7TeV

900GeV

O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

data 900gev vs 7tev
DATA : 900GeVvs 7TeV

Coverage of 900GeV and 7TeV results in Feynman-X and PT

XF spectra : 900GeV data vs. 7TeV data

900GeVvs. 7TeVwith the same PT region

Preliminary

small-η

Data 2010 at √s=900GeV

(Normalized by the number of entries in XF > 0.1)Data 2010 at √s=7TeV (η>10.94)

  • Normalized by the number of entries in XF > 0.1
  • No systematic error is considered in both collision energies.

Good agreement of XF spectrum shape between 900 GeV and 7 TeV.weak dependence of <pT> on ECMS

O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

p 0 p t spectra for various y bin mc data
p0 PT spectra for various y bin: MC/data

DPMJET 3.04 QGSJETII-03 SIBYLL 2.1 EPOS 1.99 PYTHIA 8.145

EPOS gives the best agreement both for shape and yield.

MC/Data

0

PT[GeV]

0.6

0

PT[GeV]

0.6

0

PT[GeV]

0.6

MC/Data

0

PT[GeV]

0.6

0

PT[GeV]

0.6

O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

0

PT[GeV]

0.6

slide9

p0analysis at √s=7TeV

Submitted to PRD (arXiv:1205.4578).

pT spectra vs best-fit function

Average pT vs ylab

PLB 242 531 (1990)

YBeam=6.5 for SPS

YBeam=8.92 for7 TeV LHC

ylab = ybeam - y

1. Thermodynamics (Hagedron, Riv. NuovoCim. 6:10, 1 (1983))

  • Systematic uncertainty of LHCf data is 5%.
  • Compared with the UA7 data (√s=630GeV) and MC simulations (QGSJET, SIBYLL, EPOS).
  • Two experimental data mostly appear to lie along a common curve→ no evident dependence of <pT> on ECMS.
  • Smallest dependence on ECMS is found in EPOS and it is consistent with LHCf and UA7.
  • Large ECMS dependence is found in SIBYLL

2. Numerical integration

actually up to the upper bound of histogram

O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

on going analysis
On going analysis

Neutrons at 7 TeV ppcollisions

The 2013 p-Pb run

O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

muon excess at pierre auger obs
Muon excess at Pierre Auger Obs.
  • Auger hybrid analysis
  • event-by-event MC selection to fit FD data (top-left)
  • comparison with SD data vs MC (top-right)
  • muon excess in data even for Fe primary MC
  • EPOS predicts more muon due to larger baryon production
  • => importance of baryon measurement

Pierre Auger Collaboration, ICRC 2011 (arXiv:1107.4804)

Pierog and Werner, PRL 101 (2008) 171101

O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

the challenge of n analysis
The challenge of n analysis

MC

  • Very big discrepancies between modelsUseful measurement!
  • Performance for neutrons
    • 35% Eres
    • 1mm Position Res. @ 1.5TeV n

And….

Detector performanceis also interaction model dependent.

  • Unfolding is essential to extract physics results from the measured spectra

Detector performance

O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

neutron identification
Neutron identification

L20%

L90%

  • Particle Identification with high efficiency and small contamination is necessary
  • A 2D method based on longitudinal shower development is used
  • L20%(L90%): depth in X0 where 20% (90%) of the deposited energy is contained
  • L2D=L90%-0.25 L20%
  • Mean purity in the 0-10 TeV range: 95%
  • Mean efficiency: ~90%

Shower developmentin the small calorimeter tower

projection along the sloped line

Layer[r.l.]

L90%

hadron

photon

L20%

L2D

O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

preliminary n spectrum
Preliminary n spectrum

`

Large tower

7 TeVpp

Small tower

7 TeVpp

No efficiency correction

No rapidity selection

No unfolding

No systematic errors

Unfolding is in progress…..

A paper for n performances

is in preparation

O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

arm1 arm2 comparison
Arm1-Arm2 comparison

O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

the 2013 p pb run at s nn 5 tev italian responsibility

p

IP1

IP2

IP8

Arm2

Pb

The 2013 p-Pb run at sNN = 5 TeV(Italian responsibility)
  • 2013 Jan-Feb for p-Pb/Pb-p collisions
    • Installation of the only Arm2 at one side (silicon tracker good for multiplicity)
    • Data both at p-side (20Jan-1Feb) and Pb-side (1fill, 4Feb), thanks to the swap of the beams
  • Details of beams and DAQ
    • L = 1x1029 – 0.5x1029cm-2s-1
    • ~200.106 events
    • b* = 0.8 m, 290 mradcrossigangle
    • 338p+338Pb bunches (min.DT = 200 ns), 296 colliding at IP1
    • 10-20 kHz trig rate downscaled to approximately 700 Hz
    • 20-40 Hz ATLAS common trig. Coincidence successful!
    • p-p collisions at 2.76 TeV have also been taken

3.5cm,4.0cm

O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

physics in pa
Physics in pA

QGSJET II-04

All η

8.81<η<8.99

η>10.94

p-p

p-N

p-Pb

Nuclear effect in the forward particle production

Photon spectra for different impact parameters

Please observe that the impact parameter can be obtained from Atlas Lucid, for ex.!

(Courtesy of S.Ostapchenko)

Frankly speaking……

No big feedback from ATLAS….

Photon spectra at different η in p-p, p-N and p-Pb collisions

Is p-Pbgood test for p-atmosphere?

O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

i mpact points and beam center
Impact points and beam center

2d distribution of impact point: neutrons are more peaked

2013

p-Pb run

n

p-remnant side

DATA

Determination of the beam center (BC)

DATA

2d gaussian fit

Coordinates of

the beam center with respect to the expected beam center

DATA

n

O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

g and n impact point distributions p remnant
g and n impact point distributions (p-remnant)

PRELIMINARY

PRELIMINARY

Photon - x

Photon - y

Neutron - x

Neutron - y

PRELIMINARY

PRELIMINARY

Forward baryon production is important to understand the muon excess [T. Pierog, K. Werner PRL 101 171101(2008)]

Neutrons are well peaked at the beam center

O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

p pb run g spectra
p-Pbrun: g spectra
  • Detailed simulations with the available hadronic interaction models are on-going for a comparison with data
  • Transportation of secondary particles from IP to detector, beam pipe structure, magnetic fields along the path and detector’s response will be taken into account
  • Vertical bars: statistical errors

PRELIMINARY

32 mm

PRELIMINARY

25 mm

O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

p pb run p 0
p-Pb run: p0

PRELIMINARY

PRELIMINARY

O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

the status of the upgrades
The status of the upgrades
  • Arm1 and Arm2 are currently dismounted in Florence
  • Calorimeter radiation hardening by replacing plastic scintillator with GSO is in progress
  • Production and laboratory tests of the new scintillators in Japan is finished both for Arm1 and Arm2
  • Beam test at Ion facility (HIMAC) has been done in August 2013
  • Upgrade of the silicon positioning measurement system under way
      • Rearranging Silicon layers for independent precise energy measurement
      • Increase the dynamic range to reduce saturation effects
      • New silicon hybrids and Kaptons are ready
      • The assembly of new silicon modules is starting
  • Test Beam at LNS for the absolute energy calibration of the silicon system has been assigned for 2014
  • Summer 2014: assembly of Arm1 and Arm2 in Florence
  • Test beam at SPS in Autumn 2014
  • Re-installation in LHC at the end of 2014

O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

silicon calibration program at lns
Silicon Calibration program at LNS
  • Aim of the test
    • Absolute energy calibration of one silicon module by measuring the output signal vs deposited energy
    • Relative energy calibration of all PACE3 chips (96) for all the eight silicon modules
    • Scan one module at different X-Y positions to check for systematic effects
  • To calibrate the silicon response we need to use different species of highly penetrating ions, allowing to span the whole energy range measurable with the PACE3 chips
  • To select the ions that show a constant energy loss whilst traversing the module we have set-up a simulation of the silicon detector module using the SRIM package

1 MIP = 0.043 eV/A

PACE3 saturation ~600 MIP

silicon

silicon

12C 62 MeV/A

16O 62 MeV/A

1 absolute energy calibration
1. Absolute energy calibration
  • One module is centered on the beam spot and a scan with different energies/sources is done to cover the whole dynamic range from ~ 5-10% to 120% of PACE3 chip (10K events per point)
  • Beam energies/source are a compromise between the need to cover the full range and the availability and feasibility of the test at the LNS facilities
    • Only gaseous sources have been selected and only two different energies

Intensity <104-106pps

2 relative calibration of each pace3 chip

x-stage

Silicon module

Flat cable

To DAQ

system

Support box

2. Relative calibration of each PACE3 chip
  • A position scan (X-scan) through the 12 PACE3 x 8 modules should be done with an ion beam able to give ~ 0.2-0.3 PACE3 saturation (12C 45MeV/A or 13C 62 MeV/A or 14N 62 MeV/A are equivalent)
  • 10K events per position (10 minutes each including set-up time)
  • Beam spot size ~ 2-3 mm is required

2 BTU Required

y-stage

Intensity <104-106pps

CS beam

3 position scan along one strip y scan

x-stage

Silicon module

Flat cable

To DAQ

system

Support box

3. Position scan along one strip – Y scan
  • A position scan along one strip should be done with same beam as point 2.
  • Useful to check for possible inhomogeneity due to the strip geometry
  • 10 K events x 6 positions every 10 mm (60 mm long strip) for 10 minutes each including set-up time
  • Beam spot size ~ 2-3 mm is required

<0.5 BTU Required

Intensity <104-106pps

y-stage

CS beam

lns panel evaluation
LNS panel evaluation

LHCf-SiCal

The PAC has been convinced that absolute energy calibration of

the LHCf silicon detectors is important. The collaboration did

an effort to reduce beam preparation in their final demand. 4

BTU of 45 A.MeV beams are allocated: 0.25x (20Ne, 16O, 14N, 4He,

13C) BTU plus 2.75 BTU of 13C.

Beam attribution: 4 BTU (45 A.MeV, see text)

Preferred period: Beginning of run period (May 2014)

lhcf future plan
LHCf: future plan

p-p at 13TeV (2015)

Main target: measurement at the LHC design energy.Study of energy scaling by comparison with √s = 900 GeV and 7 TeV data Upgrade of the detectors for radiation hardness.

p-light ions (O, N) at the LHC (2019?)

It allows studying HECR collisions with atmospheric nuclei.

  • p-p collisions:
  • Max. √s = 500 GeV
  • Polarized beams
  • Ion collisions:
  • Au-Au, d-Au
  • Max. √s = 200 GeV
  • Possible, d-O,N (p-O,N)Cosmic ray – Air @ knee energy.

10cm

detector

O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

RHICf experiment at RHIC

Lower collision energy, ion collisions.LOI to the RHIC committee submitted

physics of rhicf
Physics of RHICf
  • Physics of RHICf
    • Energy Scaling of Very Forward at p-p √s=500GeV
    • Measurement at p-light ion collisions (p-O) √sNN=200GeV
    • Asymmetry of Forward Neutron with polarized beams
  • LOI submitted to the RHIC committee and nicely appreciated

Nuclear modification factor at d-Au 200GeV

conclusions
Conclusions
  • We have published spectra of photons and neutral pions for pp interactions at s = 900 GeV and s = 5 TeV
    • None of the hadronic interaction models that we have considered can reproduce the data within the errors, but data lie anyway between the models
    • On-going data analysis for the hadronic component (neutrons)
  • p-Pb run at the beginning of 2013
    • Successful data taking in p-remnant and Pb remnant side
    • Common operations with ATLAS (trigger exchange)
    • On-going data analysis (some hints for interesting results!!!)
  • Future plan
    • Continue and finalize the on-going data analysis (start also ATLAS/LHCf common analysis)
    • Complete the upgrade of the detectors for radiation hardness
    • Beam test at LNS for silicon calibration
    • Data taking for pp collisions at s = 13 TeV (2015)
    • Run p-light ions at LHC (2019?)
    • Operations at RHIC (p-O or p-N at lower energies)
  • E …. Buonlavoroallanuovaresponsabilenazionale A. Tricomi!!!!!

O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

backups
Backups

O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

proceedings in 2013
Proceedings in 2013

O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

conferences in 2013
Conferences in 2013

O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

playing a game with air shower effect of forward meson spectra
Playing a game with air shower (effect of forward meson spectra)
  • DPMJET3 always over-predicts production
  • Filtering DPMJET3 mesons
    • according to an empirical probability function, divide mesons into two with keeping pT
    • Fraction of mesons escape out of LHCf acceptance
  • This process
    • Holds cross section
    • Holds elasticity/inelasticity
    • Holds energy conservation
    • Changes multiplicity
    • Does not conserve charge event-by-event

pT

E1

E2

E=E1+E2

xF = E/E0

xF = E/E0

O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

an example of filtering
An example of filtering

Vertical Depth (g/cm2)

DPMJET3+filter

photon spectrum

~30g/cm2

π0 spectrum

2.5x1016eV proton

AUGER, ICRC 2011

O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

EPS-HEP 2013 July 18-24

what lhcf can measure

η

8.5

Front view of calorimeters @ 100μrad crossing angle

What LHCf can measure

beam pipe shadow

Energy spectra and Transverse momentum distribution of

  • Gamma-rays (E>100GeV,dE/E<5%)
  • Neutral Hadrons (E>a few 100 GeV, dE/E~30%)
  • π0 (E>600GeV, dE/E<3%)

at pseudo-rapidity range >8.4

Multiplicity@14TeV

Energy Flux @14TeV

High energy flux !!

Low multiplicity !!

simulated by DPMJET3

O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

comparison wrt mc models at 7 tev
Comparison wrt MC Models at 7 TeV

DPMJET 3.04 SIBYLL 2.1 EPOS 1.99 PYTHIA 8.145 QGSJET II-03

Magenta hatch: MC Statistical errors

Gray hatch : Systematic Errors

O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

comparison wrt mc models at 900 gev
Comparison wrt MC Models at 900 GeV

O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

h mass
h Mass

Arm2 detector, all runs with zero crossing angle

True hMass: 547.9 MeV

MC Reconstructed hMass peak: 548.5 ± 1.0 MeV

Data Reconstructed hMass peak: 562.2 ± 1.8 MeV (2.6% shift)

O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

slide40

π0 analysis at √s=7TeV

Submitted to PRD (arXiv:1205.4578).

Type-I

Type-II

  • Small angle
  • large BG
  • Low-stat., but can cover
  • High-E
  • Large-PT
  • Large angle
  • Simple
  • Clean
  • High-stat.

Type-ILHCf-Arm1

Type-IILHCf-Arm1

LHCf-Arm1Data 2010

Preliminary

Type-II at large tower

BG

Type-II at small tower

Signal

O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

p 0 data vs mc
p0 Data vs MC

O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

p 0 data vs mc1
p0 Data vs MC
  • dpmjet3.04 &pythia 8.145 show overall agreement with LHCf data for 9.2<y<9.6 and pT<0.25 GeV/c, while the expected p0 production rates by both models exceed the LHCf data as pT becomes large
  • sibyll 2.1 predicts harder pion spectra than data, but the expected p0yield is generally small
  • qgsjet II-03 predicts p0 spectra softer than LHCf data
  • epos 1.99 shows the best overall agreement with the LHCfdata.
    • behaves softer in the low pT region, pT< 0.4GeV/c in 9.0<y<9.4 and pT <0.3GeV/c in 9.4<y<9.6
    • behaves harder in the large pT region.

O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

mc study of n response
MC study of n response

E vs. <Evis> at center

Energy resolution (uniform incident on calorimeters)

Position resolution

Correction for position dependent shower leakage

O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

proton remnant side photon spectra
Proton remnant side – Photonspectra

O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

proton remnant side n eutron spectra
Proton remnant side - Neutronspectra

O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

proton remnant side p 0
Proton-remnant side – p0

We can detect p0!

Important tool for energy scale

And also for models check…..

O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

slide47
Lead-remnant side – multiplicityPlease remind that EPOS does not consider Fermi motion and Nuclear Fragmentation

Small tower

Big tower

n

O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

common trigger with atlas
Common trigger with ATLAS

MC

impact parameter vs. # of particles in ATLAS LUCID

LHCf forced to trigger ATLAS

Impact parameter may be determined by ATLAS

Identification of forward-only events

O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

lhcf location and detector layout

140 m

140 m

γ

8 cm

6 cm

n

γ

π0

Arm#2 Detector

25mmx25mm+32mmx32mm

4 X-Y Silicon strip tracking layers

Arm#1 Detector

20mmx20mm+40mmx40mm

4 X-Y SciFitracking layers

LHCf: location and detector layout

Detector II

Tungsten

Scintillator

Silicon mstrips

Detector I

Tungsten

Scintillator

Scintillatingfibers

INTERACTION POINT

IP1 (ATLAS)

Front Counter

Front Counter

44X0,

1.6 lint

Energy resolution:

< 5% for photons

30% for neutrons

Position resolution: < 200μm (Arm#1)

40μm (Arm#2)

Pseudo-rapidity range:

η > 8.7 @ zero Xing angle

η > 8.4 @ 140urad

O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

radiation hardness of gso
Radiation hardness of GSO

Dose rate=2 kGy/hour

(≈1032cm-2s-1)

  • No decrease up to 1 MGy
  • +20% increase over 1 kGy (τ=4.2h recovery)
  • 2 kGy is expected for 350nb-1 @ 14TeV pp)

Irradiated sample

Not irradiated

ref. sample

1kGy

K. Kawadeet al., JINST, 6, T09004, 2011

τ~4.2h recovery

different silicon bonding scheme
Different silicon bonding scheme

80 mm implant pitch

160 mm readout pitch

Silicon sensor

Not used

Readout

Floating

Normal configuration

Readout

Readout

New configuration

Ground

Readout

New silicon

Arm2 detector

The beam test setup

Pb (40mm)

e-, 200 GeV/c

new silicon module results quick analysis
New Silicon Module results (Quick analysis)
  • Clearly the pulse height in the region of new configuration was reduced by a factor of 1.5 ~ 1.7 (we could naively expect 2)

The modification works fine and increases the silicon dynamic range

Histogram of peak values

Silicon Lateral distribution

Normal

New

#Strip

how accelerator experiments can contribute to vhecr
How accelerator experiments can contribute to VHECR?

① Inelastic cross section

If larges: rapid development

If small s: deep penetrating

④ secondary interactions

nucleon, p

② Forward energy spectrum

If softer shallow development

If harder deep penetrating

Inelasticity k=1-Elead/Eavail

If large k (p0s carry more energy)

rapid development

If small k (baryons carry more energy)

deep penetrating

O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

the large hadron collider lhc
The Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

pp450GeV+450GeV Elab~ 2x1014eV

pp3.5TeV+3.5TeV Elab~ 2.6x1016eV

pp 6.5TeV+6.5TeV Elab~1017eV

  • Total cross section ↔ TOTEM, ATLAS, CMS
  • Multiplicity ↔ Central detectors
  • Inelasticity/Secondary spectra ↔Forward calorimeters (LHCf, ZDCs)

CMS/TOTEM

Full rapidity coverage!

ALICE

LHCb/MoEDAL

ATLAS/LHCf

R. Orava, (2007)

O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013