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England’s Expansion. At first, England was most interested in fishing cod and salmon off the waters of New Foundland (early 1500s). Population growth and demand for woolen cloth changed English goals by 1550. However, Queen Elizabeth was not prepared to challenge Spain at that time.

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england s expansion
England’s Expansion
  • At first, England was most interested in fishing cod and salmon off the waters of New Foundland (early 1500s).
  • Population growth and demand for woolen cloth changed English goals by 1550. However, Queen Elizabeth was not prepared to challenge Spain at that time.
  • In the 1560s and 1570s, England colonized Ireland throughal brutal military conquest.
english emigrate
English Emigrate
  • Failed at Roanoke and saw meager success in Jamestown
  • In the 1620s, invested mostly in the Caribbean (Barbados, Nevis, Antigua)
  • Religious persecution and political tension drove Englishmen to the New World by 1640
    • Greatest # to West Indies
    • 1/3 to North America
    • Small % to northern Ireland
african bondage
African Bondage
  • Portuguese ship captains tapped into a centuries old slave-trading network when they reached West Africa.
  • Slaves in Africa served a variety of roles – soldiers and even royal advisors. Some were criminals but most were war captives.
  • 9.6 million Africans were brought to the Americas as slave
  • From 1519 to 1900, African newcomers outnumbered Europeans at least 2 to 1.
the capture of africans
The Capture of Africans
  • Captives marched hundreds of miles to the coast, guided by African slave catchers, where European traders awaited
  • Captives were tied together with rope or were secured with wooden yokes at the neck
slide6

Slaves were marched to barracoons on the beach, branded, then sent in canoes to ships anchored in the harbor

slave trade
Slave Trade
  • In the late 1500s the slave trade became a major source of income for Portugal.
  • The first Africans arrived in Virginia in 1619 and were indentured servants. Slavery followed.
middle passage
Middle Passage
  • Captured Africans were purchased from Africa and were packed and tortured in a boat across the Atlantic Ocean to America.
  • The “Middle Passage” was the difficult ocean journey endured by slaves.
effects of the slave trade on africa
Effects of the Slave Trade on Africa
  • Deprived African communities of strongest young men and women
  • Introduction of guns increased raids and wars between native groups
  • Alcohol abuse, trickery, desire for gold and material possessions
  • European colonization in various places across the continent
benin
Benin
  • A brilliant society in the 1500s, it was destroyed by the slave trade.
  • Population declined, warfare prevailed, faith in gods was lost.
triangular trade system
Triangular Trade System
  • European goods exchanged in Africa for slaves
  • Slaves traded for New World products (sugar, rum, deerskin, tobacco) in the Americas
  • New World products traded for European goods
jamestown
Jamestown
  • http://www.history.com/shows/america-the-story-of-us/videos/playlists/exclusive-video#life-in-jamestown
  • England’s first permanent colony, 1607
  • Plagued the first year by dysentery, malaria, drought, etc. Only 60 survived from 1607-1609 (out of 900)
  • Local Powhatan Indians not easily subjugated.
  • Viginia Company began offering free land. From 1610-1622, 9,000 English crossed, only 2,000 survived.
2011 a p test
2011 A.P. Test
  • Part A (DBQ): President Nixon w/ 7 documents
  • Part B: Choose ONE question
    • 1. Analyze the origins and development of slavery in Britain’s North American colonies in the period 1607 to 1776.
    • 2. To what extent did political parties contribute to the development of national unity in the United States between 1790 and 1840 ?
part c mid 1800s today
Part C: Mid 1800s - Today
  • 1. Compare and contrast the ways that many Americans expressed their opposition to immigrants in the 1840s–1850s with the ways that many Americans expressed their opposition to immigrants in the 1910s–1920s.
  • 2. African American leaders have responded to racial discrimination in the United States in a variety of ways. Compare and contrast the goals and strategies of African American leaders in the 1890s –1920s with the goals and strategies of African American leaders in the 1950s –1960s.
king philip s war metacomet s war
King Philip’s War (Metacomet’s War)

Massasoit, a Wampanoag chief, was friendly to the Plymouth settlers in 1620.

In time, his son Metacomet (a.k.a. “Philip”) took control and felt angered by his people’s subjection to English law. Other young Wampanoag males felt the same and unleashed hit-and-run attacks on the Plymouth colony in 1675.

king philip s war ends
King Philip’s War Ends

In 1676, the battle was over. Philip was slain, his body drawn and quartered, and his head paraded in triumph in Plymouth.

Estimated cost of war damage was exceeded value of all personal property in New England.

Philip's son, Massasoit's grandson, was sold into slavery in Bermuda. The generosity of Massasoit in 1620 indirectly resulted in the enslavement of his grandson 56 years later.

new york
New York

“New Netherland” was settled by the Dutch in 1609, & it became a haven for diverse groups – French, Swedes, Portuguese, Jews, Africans.

The colony was re-named “New York” (named for the duke of York, brother of England’s Charles II)

NYC gained prominence as a major trading port for the colonies.