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Ancient India & China. Chapter 3. Chapter 3 Section 1. Early Civilizations of India & Pakistan. Hinduism Warm Up.

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Chapter 3 section 1

Chapter 3 Section 1

Early Civilizations of India & Pakistan

Hinduism warm up
Hinduism Warm Up

“The essential self or the virtual essence in humans is the same as that in an ant, the same as that in a gnat, the same as that in an elephant…indeed the same as that in the whole universe.”

Hindu quote

What does this quote mean? Explain

using your own words

Early civilizations of india pakistan
Early Civilizations of INDIA & PAKISTAN

Key Terms

Mohenjo-Daro Brahman

Vedas Rajah Acculturation

Essential Question: “How have scholars learned about India’s first two civilizations, Indus & Aryan?”

Geography of india
Geography of India

  • Indian subcontinent is a large landmass that juts out from Asia

  • Divided into 3 zones:

    • Gangetic Plain: good rivers for farming

    • Deccan Plateau: raised area of flat land too dry for farming

    • Coastal Plains: known for monsoons= wind & rain storms that last for months

Civilizations begin end
Civilizations Begin & End

  • Civilization begins in India around 2600 BC in Indus River Valley

  • First cities: Harappa & Mohenjo-Daro

  • People worshipped many gods & held animals sacred

  • Venerationfor cattle= special regard & protection of cows

  • Civilizations failed around 1900 BC

    • Caused by flood or earthquake

Aryan civilization
Aryan Civilization

  • Aryans migrate to India & establish settlement (1500 BC)

  • Farmed & elected leaders called rajahs

    • Competed for control of land & trade

  • 4 groups of people in Aryan society:

    • Top= Priests warriorsfarmersmerchants servants

Aryan religion
Aryan Religion

  • People worshipped gods & goddesses who embodied natural forces such as sky, sun, water, etc.

  • Indra: god of war, chief god, used thunderbolts for weapons

  • Vedas: collection of hymns & religious instructions

  • Brahman: single spiritual power beyond Vedas

  • Mystics sought direct communion with divine forces

Epic literature of aryans
Epic Literature of Aryans

  • 500 BC= many kingdoms= many different cultures

  • Acculturation- creating a common culture by blending traditions

  • Wrote epic poems in Sanskrit language

    • Mahabharata- tells of warfare & religion

    • Ramayana- teaches values


  • How did the Aryan civilization differ from the Indus River Valley that came before it?

  • How were Aryan society & government structured?

  • What types of values were revealed in Indian epic poems?

  • Main Idea?

Chapter 3

Chapter 3

Hinduism & Buddhism

Journal entry
Journal Entry

What does American culture/religion have in common with India’s culture & religion?

*Write the prompt & your response, 1 paragraph.*

Hinduism buddhism
Hinduism & Buddhism

Key Terms

Reincarnation KarmaNirvana

Caste Siddhartha Gautama

Four Noble Truths Eightfold Path

Essential Question: “ In what ways were religion and society connected in Ancient India?”

Beliefs of hinduism
Beliefs of Hinduism

  • Hinduism has no single founder, mixture of diverse cultures led to Hinduism

  • Hindus worship a variety of gods:

  • Brahma: the Creator god

  • Vishnu: the preserver

  • Shiva: the Destroyer

  • Hindu teachings recorded in Vedas & in the Bhagavad-Gita

Hinduism beliefs
Hinduism Beliefs

  • Every person has an essential self (altman)

  • Hindus believe in achieving moksha (union w/ brahma)

    • Free from selfish desires

  • Reincarnation: rebirth of the soul in another bodily form

    • To continue working toward moksha in other lifetimes

  • Karma: all actions in a person’s life that affect fate in the next life

Hindu beliefs
Hindu Beliefs

Karma: person’s behavior in life determines their caste in the next life

Dharma: Your responsibilities in life to family & caste, do this job well!

Caste system
Caste System

  • Aryans divided society into 4 groups

  • Indian caste system divided non-Aryans

  • Caste: social groups people are born into and rarely changes

  • Caste= represents Hindu species, can not marry outside caste

  • High caste & Low caste (untouchables) are separated

  • Can only achieve higher caste in next life by works in this life

Teachings of buddha
Teachings of Buddha

  • Siddhartha Gautama: teachings spread throughout Asia

  • Prophet predicted boy Gautama would become holy

  • Taught 4 noble truths:

    • All life is full of suffering, pain, and sorrow

    • Cause of suffering is nonvirtue, or negative actions & hatred

    • Only cure for suffering is to overcome nonvirtue

    • To overcome nonvirtue, follow the Eightfold Path

  • Eightfold Path: “Right views, right aspirations, right speech, right conduct, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, & right contemplation”

Buddhism spreads
Buddhism Spreads

  • Monasteries & Convents set up throughout India & Asia

  • Buddhism splits into 2 major sects= subgroups

    • Theravada Buddhism: life devoted to Buddha= monks & nuns

    • Mahayana Buddhism: ordinary people follow to achieve salvation

  • Hindu religion begins to absorb Buddhist teachings

  • Buddhism declines & Hindu takes over

Chapter 31

Chapter 3

Rise of Civilization in China

Geography influences china
Geography Influences China

  • Earliest civilizations grew along Huang River

    • Farming & trade again!

    • Known for fine, windblown, yellow soil  loess

    • Frequently flooded “River of Sorrows”

  • Need to control water led to stronger government

Shang dynasty
Shang Dynasty

  • 1766 BC Kings and princes ruled together

  • Clans: groups of families, claiming common ancestors

  • Royal family=top of society & women had military leadership

  • Warriors used horses and chariots

  • Majority of people were peasant farmers

  • Conquered by Zhou (joh) people

Zhou dynasty
Zhou Dynasty

  • Overthrew Shang in 1122 BC

  • Rulers believed in “divine right to rule”  Mandate of Heaven

  • Dynastic Cycle: rise & fall of dynasties

    • Corrupt rulers dynasty fails

  • Feudalism: lords governed own land, but owed military service to a ruler

  • Dynasty ended when fighting lords could not be controlled


  • Shang Dynasty= many gods Zhou Dynasty= thinkers

  • Confucius: philosophy emphasized social order & good gov’t

    • Filial piety= respect for parents most important

  • Laozi founded Daoism

    • Emphasized harmony with nature & focus on “Dao” or “the Way”

Achievements of china
Achievements of China

  • Silk-making: Secret technique

    • Luxury fabric item great for trade

  • Developed system of writing

    • Wrote questions for the gods on oracle bones

      • Priests interpret answers

    • Later turned to writing art called Chinese Calligraphy


  • How was China governed during Shang Dynasty?

  • What was the focus of Confucius’ teachings?

  • Main Idea:

Religion posters
Religion Posters

  • Groups will choose one religion from various ancient civilizations we have studied and create a poster with pictures, symbols, info, quotes, principles, etc. representing the religion

  • 1) Hinduism

  • 2) Buddhism

  • 3) Confucianism

  • 4) Daoism

  • 5) Egyptian gods/beliefs

  • 6) Judaism

No more than one group per religion

Ch 3 section 5

Ch. 3 Section 5

Rulers of China

Shi huangdi unifies china
Shi Huangdi Unifies China

  • 221 BC= self-proclaimed Shi Huangdi= “First Emperor”

  • Used harsh legalism to rule

    • Strict punishments for criminals and law breakers

    • Ruled with strength not goodness

    • Burned books that would educate people and encourage dissent

  • Abolished feudalism, established military states

  • Peasants paid high taxes on land

  • Standardized weights, measure, writing, cart axles, and roads= unified China

Building projects
Building Projects

  • Shi Huangdi’s greatest achievement= Great Wall of China

    • Defense wall for kingdom

    • 25 ft high, pulled together China’s resources & people

  • Qin Dynasty collapses after Shi Huangdi’s death due to high taxes, harsh rule, forced labor, and revolts

Han dynasty cont
Han Dynasty (cont)

  • Silk Road: network of trade routes that link China to the West

    • Foods, fabrics, furs

  • Civil Servants: officials in gov’t, should earn positions by merit, not by family ties

    • Based on education & achievement, not who you are

  • Warlords: local military rulers, overthrew the weaker leaders of Han dynasty

Golden age
Golden Age

  • Wrote about chemistry, astronomy, zoology, etc.

  • Acupuncture: medical treatment of pain & illness by inserting needles into pressure points

  • Made advancements in technology & arts & engineering

  • Buddhism spread in China

    • Became a way to for Chinese to deal with crisis

    • Strong administration & gov’t system


  • What kind of government did legalist favor?

  • How did the Han empire grow economically?

  • What achievements were made in Han golden age?

  • Why did Buddhism appeal to China?

  • Main Idea?