What was the role and impact of foreign intervention? By: Simone and Chloe
Introduction Thesis: Foreign intervention created an unbalanced situation due to the Spanish dependence on foreign aid and ultimately impacted the outcome of the Civil War by allowing the Nationalists to win, which is to a certain extent comparable to the role of foreign intervention in the Russian Civil War.
MP1: Reasons for Foreign Intervention Topic Sentence:The civil war in Spain mirrored the political chaos that was at that period dominating Europe. Countries were involved due to motives in regards to the benefits of their own nations. • Point/Evidence: Nationalist pleas were answered by Hitler and Mussolini • Hitler: necessary to stop “communist barbarism” • The support towards nationalist forged a closer connection with Italy • If nationalists were to win – Germany could potentially enforce their alliance with Britain and France – also prepare him for war – test commanders, weapons and tactics • Wanted instability as it was on the Southern border of France (weaken an enemy)(November 1936: Mussolini and Franco agreement) – as well as would be able to obtain easy access to iron, copper, mercury and other natural resources • Point/Evidence:The USSR, or better said the communists took advantage of this civil war to weaken their political enemies • “Madrid will be the grave of Fascism.” • Felt it was important to limit the spread of fascism and hence sent aid to republicans • Stalin wanted to haul the progress of the war • Weaken Italy and Germany - make USSR fain military advance • Used volunteers (International Brigade) – for internal struggles against Socialism and Anarchism. • Point/Evidence: The international brigade made up of volunteers intervened for ideological reasons. • Many related back to Russia – in order to hide amount of support sent many people from the Red Army via the International Brigade • Opposed the spread of fascism – French, British, USA
MP2: Impact of Foreign Intervention Topic Sentence: Due to the involvement of only some nations in the Civil War, the impact was such that it helped determine the outcome of the War as well as aggravate the already tense political situation in Europe • Point/Evidence: The Nationalists received abundant help from Germany, Portugal and Italy whilst the Republicans suffered from the Non-Interventionist Policy and was only aided by the USSR. • Nationalist aid: Germans: 16,000 men, 200 tanks, 600 planes. Italians: 75,000 men, 150 tanks, 660 planes • Historian Anthony Beevor: “Militarily Germany was the most effective and influential assistant in Spain” • Republican Aid: USSR: 2,500 men, 1,000 planes, 900 tanks • IMPACT: Created an unbalanced situation influenced the outcome of the War. • Point/Evidence: The Russians involvement created rifts within the Republican Party and their lack of constant support weakened the Republicans. • Russians: noncommittal when helping Republicans Republicans received less and less aid • Between 1936 and 1939, USSR supplies decrease: tanks 322 to 0, planes from 496 to 0. • Since USSR was communist, many Republicans were unhappy to be helped by communists political divisions between the Republicans • IMPACT: 1) Diminish aid weakened the Republic and created a further imbalance in terms of supplies. 2) the Russian aid was causing disputes within the Republicans making a lack of organization and unified efforts. • Point/Evidence: Countries helping the Spanish were violating the Non-Interventionist Policy created more tensions between countries and political disputes between European powers. • Civil War aid mirrored the political disputes in Europe • IMPACT: Large-scale: violation of agreement aggravated political tensions French and British saw this as a lack of cooperation from other powers as well as a deliberate acting of undermining collective security.
MP3: Russian Civil War and the Spanish Civil War Topic Sentence: When comparing foreign intervention in the Russian Civil war and in the Spanish Civil War, they bear several differences in terms of the reasons behind countries’ intervention, and how, in terms of provision of aid, the situation was more unequal than in Spain. • Point/Evidence: The reasons for involvement: countries protecting their own interests • After the Bolshevik Revolution, Russia was divided between the Whites and the Reds • Countries like Britain, France, the USA, Czechoslovakia and Japan wanted to destroy the Bolshevik government • sent in troops • Different: Spanish Civil war: Franco and Hitler became involved to establish more fascist States. Russian Civil War: Germany and Italy played no part. Spanish Civil War: the British and French were not so concerned about the spread of communism unlike in the Russian Civil War. • Point/Evidence:Foreign intervention more one-sided in the Russian Civil War • Since the Whites were anti-communist, all foreign intervention attempts to weaken Bolsheviks. • Unlike Spanish Civil War, where both sides had at least one source of foreign aid. • Unbalanced foreign aid impacted out come of war (Spanish Civil War). Unlike the Bolsheviks who did not suffer from lack of materials/foreign support and won the Civil War. • Point/Evidence:Similar to the Spanish Civil War as it reflect the political divisions of the time • In 1936, European political situation very divided more so than in 1918. • Relations were split up : Nationalist/fascist states, the democratic states and the communists. • Due to failure of collective security, the League of Nations and international crises, relations were tense between the three parties and the politics were polarized. • Similar to the time of the Russian Civil War, where the British and French allied against the communists
Conclusions Thesis: Foreign intervention in the Spanish Civil War from the 17th of July 1936 to the 1st of April 1939, created an unbalanced situation due to the Spanish dependence on foreign aid and ultimately impacted the outcome of the Civil War by allowing the Nationalists to win, which is to a certain extent comparable to the role of foreign intervention in the Russian Civil War. Additionally, the foreign intervention impacted the relations between countries in Europe.
Interactive Activity • Art Analysis involving foreign intervention • Nationalist soldiers versus the Brigade soldiers • Propaganda/posters • How do they portray foreign intervention? • Why was there a need to create propaganda? • What can we learn from these posters?