The Environment Biomes
Terms Review • The study of interactions of living things with the living(biotic) and non-living(abiotic) things in their environment. • Living/Biotic examples • Non-living/abiotic examples
Organization in Ecology • Biosphere: Parts of the Earth and atmosphere that support life. • Ecosystem: All of the organisms and the non-living environment in a particular place. • Community: All of the organisms living and interacting in an area (All populations). • Population: All the members of a species that live in one place at one time. • Organism: One individual.
Biomes • Is about (on both frames): • A group of ecosystems with similar climates (weather) and organisms.
Major Biomes (Do not write) • There are 8 major biomes around the world. • Tundra • Tiaga (Coniferous Forest) (Also called Boreal Forest) • Temperate (Deciduous) Forest • Tropical Rain Forest • Temperate Grasslands • Savanna • Chaparral • Desert • Lakes and Streams • Ocean
Biomes (Ecosystems) found in Minnesota • Forest (taiga and temperate deciduous) • Grasslands (Prairies) • Lakes • Streams • A SPECIAL NEW BIOME TOO!
Taiga (Coniferous Forest) • Temperature: 36-41degrees F • Average Yearly Precipitation:21-32” • Soil: low in nutrients, highly acidic • Characteristic Vegetation: coniferous (cone-bearing) evergreen trees: Pine, fir, spruce. • Characteristic Animals: Timberwolves, Bears, moose, lynx, hare. • Other Information: Long, cold winters. Needles are adapted to prevent water loss.
Temperate Deciduous Forest • Temperature: 39-45 degrees F • Average Yearly Precipitation:24-35” • Soil: Thicker, moderate nutrients • Characteristic Vegetation: Deciduous (leafy) trees: Oak, Maple, Birch, Elm. • Characteristic Animals: Bear, White-tailed Deer, barred owls, squirrels, foxes, raccoons, wolves. • Other Information: Broad leaves are adapted to get the maximum amount of sunlight.
Temperate Grassland (Prairie) • Temperature: 37-45 degrees F • Average Yearly Precipitation:18-33” • Soil: Deep layer of topsoil. Rich in nutrients. • Characteristic Vegetation: Dense, Tall grasses. Drier areas: shorter grasses. • Characteristic Animals: Deer, North American Bison, Jackrabbits, turkeys. • Other Information: Occasional fires that are good for the environment. Converted to farmland.
Lakes and Ponds • Types: • Eutrophic- rich in organic matter and vegetation (murky). • Oligotrophic- little organic matter. Clearer water with a sandy or rocky bottom. • Water: Fresh (no salt), standing or still • Characteristic Vegetation: Aquatic plants and algae • Characteristic Animals: insects, snails, frogs, sunfish, walleye, pike, catfish, etc. • Other Information: Water absorbs light. Plants only grow near surface or shallow water.
Rivers and Streams • Parts: • Headwaters- where stream begins, cold, clear water, flows rapidly, fewer nutrients. • Backwaters- where more streams connect, warmer, murkier, slower moving water, more nutrients • Water: Fresh (no salt), moving water • Characteristic Vegetation: Aquatic plants and algae • Characteristic Animals: insects, clams, trout, crayfish, catfish, walleye, etc. • Other Information: Organisms must be adapted to different parts of the rivers and streams!
Taiga/ Coniferous Forest Temperate Deciduous Forest Temperate Grasslands
Another MN Biome? • The Minnesota DNR recently has added another Biome! • Tallgrass Aspen Parkland Biome. • Precipitation 20-22” • Average Annual Temperature- 35-44 degrees F • Soil: Average Nutrients • Vegetation- Aspen, willow, lady’s slipper, little bluestem grass. • Animals- Sharp-tailed grouse, American Elk, Canadian Toad. • Other info-Newly classified as Biome!
TallGrass Aspen Parkland What part of the state do you think you’ll find Tallgrass Aspen Parkland? St. Cloud
Tundra • Temperature: -26 to 12 degrees Celsius -15 to 54 degrees F • Average Yearly Precipitation: less than 25cm • Soil: thin, low in nutrients • Characteristic Vegetation: mosses, grasses, dwarf woody plants. • Characteristic Animals: arctic foxes, caribou, musk oxen, snowshoe hare, snowy owl. • Other Information: Permafrost: permanent layer of frozen soil. Under the surface.
Tropical Rain Forest • Temperature: 20 to 34 degrees Celsius. 68 to 93 degrees F • Average Yearly Precipitation: 200-400cm • Soil: thin, low in nutrients. • Characteristic Vegetation: Broad-leaved evergreen trees. Venus fly trap. • Characteristic Animals: Tucans, Primates, lizards, snakes, colorful birds. • Other Information: Very diverse (Many Species). Canopy: Treetops that block sunlight to the forest floor.
Savanna • Temperature: 16 to 34 degrees Celsius. 60 to 93 degrees F • Average Yearly Precipitation: 75-150cm • Soil: Dry, thin topsoil, lower in nutrients. • Characteristic Vegetation: Tall grasses, and scattered trees. • Characteristic Animals: Lion, giraffe, kudu, gazels, leopards, wildebeests, zebra. • Other Information: Wet and dry seasons. Species are adapted to drought.
Chaparral • Temperature: 10 to 18 degrees Celsius. 50 to 65 degrees F • Average Yearly Precipitation: Less than 25cm • Soil: Rocky, thin topsoil. Low in nutrients. • Characteristic Vegetation: Small trees and shrubs. • Characteristic Animals: Mountain Lion, grey fox, alligator lizard, bobcat, squirrels, mice. • Other Information: Hot, dry summers. Periodic Fire.
Desert • Temperature: 7 to 38 degrees Celsius. 44 to 100 degrees F • Average Yearly Precipitation: Less than 25cm • Soil: Dry, sandy, low in nutrients. • Characteristic Vegetation: Spread Out- sparse waxy plants: Cactus. • Characteristic Animals: Lizards, snakes, camel, quail, kit fox. Nocturnal or burrowing animals. • Other Information: Not always hot. Cold in the winter and at night. Waxy plants are adapted to drought: prevent water loss.
Oceans • Parts: • Intertidal zone, neritic zone, surface zone, deep zone • Water: Saline (Salty) water with temperature currents. • Characteristic Vegetation: Aquatic plants and algae • Characteristic Animals: whales, sharks, tuna, king crab, octopus, sea sponge, mackerel, etc. • Other Information: Cold and warm ocean currents often effect the weather of the land around them.