Congenital heart disease
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Congenital Heart Disease. F aculty of Medicine University of Brawijaya. Definition. Cardiac lesions present from birth. Causes of congenital heart disease. Many factors both genetic and environmental affect cardiac development in the uterus; therefore no one cause can explain all cases.

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Congenital heart disease

Congenital Heart Disease

Faculty of Medicine

University of Brawijaya


  • Cardiac lesions present from birth

Causes of congenital heart disease
Causes of congenital heart disease

  • Many factors both genetic and environmental affect cardiac development in the uterus; therefore no one cause can explain all cases

Causes of congenital heart disease1
Causes of congenital heart disease

  • Maternal rubella- in addition to cataracts, deafness, and microcephaly, this can cause patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and pulmonary stenosis

  • Fetal alcohol syndrome- associated with cardiac defects (as well as microcephaly, micrognathia, microphthalmia, and growth retardation)

Causes of congenital heart disease2
Causes of congenital heart disease

  • Maternal systemic lupus erythematosus – associated with fetal complete heart block (due to transplacental passage of anti-Ro antibodies)

Genetic associations with congenital heart disease
Genetic associations with congenital heart disease

  • Trisomy 21- endocardial cushion defects, atrial septal defect (ASD), ventricular septal defect (VSD), tetralogy of Fallot.

  • Turner’s syndrome (X0)- coarctation of the aorta

  • Marfan syndrome- aortic dilatation and aortic and mitral regurgitation

  • Kartagener’s syndrome

Complications of congenital heart disease
Complications of congenital heart disease

  • Cyanosis – the presence of more than 5g/dL of reduced hemoglobin in arterial blood

  • Congestive heart failure – this occurs due to the inability of the heart to maintain sufficient tissue perfusion as a result of the cardiac lesion

Complications of congenital heart disease1
Complications of congenital heart disease

  • Pulmonary hypertension-this occurs as a result of an abnormal increase in pulmonary blood flow due to left-to-right shunt (e.g ASD, VSD, PDA)

  • Infective endocarditis – congenital heart disease may result in lesions prone to bacterial colonization

Complications of congenital heart disease2
Complications of congenital heart disease

  • Sudden death – this may be due to arrhythmias (more common in these disorders) or outflow obstruction as seen in aortic stenosis

Classification of cyanotic congenital heart disease
Classification of cyanotic congenital heart disease

Classification of cyanoctic congenital heart disease by the amount

of pulmonary blood flow seen on chest x ray.

Increased Pulmonary Blood Flow Normal or Decreased Pulmonary Blood Flow

Acyanotic heart disease

Chest X ray

Blood flow to lung



















Echocardiography, cardiac catheterization

Cardiac malformations
Cardiac malformations

  • Ventricular septal defect (VSD)

  • Atrial septal defect (ASD)

  • Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)

  • Pulmonary stenosis – causes cyanosis if severe

  • Coarctation of the aorta

  • Aortic stenosis

  • Tetralogy of Fallot – causes cyanosis

  • Transposition of the great arteries – causes cyanosis

  • Other causes of cyanotic congenital heart disease-pulmonary atresia, hypoplastic left heart, severe Ebstein’s anomaly with ASD

Patofisiologi left to right shunt

  • Of left to right shunt:

  • volume burden

  • dilatation/hipertrophy




3 types of atrial septal defect
3 types of Atrial septal defect

  • (1) Septum primum (ostium primum ASD)- this defect lies adjacent to atrioventricular valves, which are often also abnormal and incompetent

  • (2) Septum secundum (ostium secundum ASD)- the most common form of ASD, it is midseptal in location

3 types of atrial septal defect1
3 types of Atrial septal defect

  • (3) Sinus venosus ASD – this lies high in the septum and may be associated with anomalous pulmonary venous drainage (in which one of the pulmonary veins drains into the right atrium instead of the left.

Clinical features
Clinical features

  • The magnitude of the left-to-right shunt depends upon the size of the defect and also the relative pressures on the left and right sides of the heart.


  • Early life: asymptomatic

  • Adult life: dyspnea, fatigue, recurrent chest infections

  • As time goes by, the increased pulmonary blood flow results in pulmonary hypertension and eventually reversal of the shunt and Eisenmenger syndrome


  • The findings of a patient who has an ASD depend upon the following factors:

    • Size of ASD

    • Presence or absence of pulmonary hypertension

    • Present of reversal


  • The second heart sound is widely split because closure of the pulmonary valve is delayed due to increased pulmonary blood flow.

  • The splitting is fixed in relation to respiration because the communication between the atria prevents the normal pressure differential between right and left sides that occurs during respiration.


  • The increased pulmonary blood flow causes a mid systolic pulmonary flow murmur.

  • If PH has developed  reduction of the left-to-right shunt, the pulmonary flow murmur disappears; there is a loud pulmonary component to the second heart sound

  • If Eisenmenger’s syndrome occurs  centrally cyanosed, finger clubbing


  • EKG

    • Ostium secundum ASD: right axis deviation

    • Ostium primum defect: left axis deviation

  • Chest radiography

    • Pulmonary arteries: dilated, its branches are prominent

    • Enlarged right atrium, enlarged right ventricle

Cardiac catheterization
Cardiac catheterization

  • To reveal ASD, because the catheter can be passed across it.

  • Serial oxygen saturation measurements are made at different levels from the superior vena through the atrium and the right ventricle into the pulmonary artery.

  • At the level of the left-to-right shunt there will be a step up increase of the oxygen saturation as blod flow from the left side enters the right.

Management of asd
Management of ASD

  • Signs of congestive heart failure: diuretics and ACE inhibitors

  • ASD carries a risk of infective endocarditis  appropriate prophylactic measures should be taken

Management of asd1
Management of ASD

  • Early diagnosis  evaluate its severity to be able to repair the defect before pulmonary hypertension occurs.

  • If PH (+), repair does not stop its deterioration. ASD with pulmonary to systemic flow ratio exceeding 1,5:1 should be repaired.


  • The most common congenital cardiac abnormality

  • The ventricular septum is made up of two main components:

    • The membraneous septum- situated high in the septum and relatively small. The most common site for a VSD.

    • The muscular septum- lower and defects here may be multiple.

Clinical features1
Clinical features

  • Neonates:

    • Small VSD: asymptomatic

    • Large VSD  left ventricular failure :

      • Failure to thrive, feeding difficulty, sweating on feeding

      • Tachypnea and intercostal recession

      • Hepatomegaly

  • Adult:

    • Asymptomatic

    • Dyspnea due to PH or Eisenmenger syndrome


Findings depend on:

  • Size of VSD:

    • small VSD: loud holosystolic murmur, radiates to the apex and axilla

    • Loud VSD: less loud holosystolic murmur with signs of left and right ventricular hypertrophy

  • Presence or absence of pulmonary hypertension

  • Presence of shunt reversal


  • Chest radiography: enlarged left ventricle with prominent pulmonary vascular markings. Pulmonary edema may be seen in infants.

  • Echocardiography: shows VSD and its size and location


  • 30% of cases close spontaneously, mostly by the time the child is 3 years of age.

  • Some do not close until the child is 10 years old.

  • Defects near the valve ring or near the outlet of the ventricle do not usually close


  • Operative closure is the treatment of choice and is recommended for all lesions that have not undergone spontaneous closure

  • VSD  risk factor for infective endocarditis  appropriate prophyalctic measures should be taken

Patent ductus arteriosus pda
Patent ductusarteriosus (PDA)


  • In the fetus most of the output of the right ventricle bypasses the lungs via the ductus arteriosus

  • This vessel joins the pulmonary trunk (artery) to the descending aorta distal to the left subclavian artery.

  • The ductus arteriosus normally closes about 1 month after birth in full-term infants and takes longer to close in premature infants

Clinical features2
Clinical features

  • The factors that determine the nature of clinical features are the same as in VSD and ASD i.e the size of the defect, the presence of PH, the development of Eisenmenger’s syndrome

  • A patent PDA is more likely in babies born at high altitude, probably due to low atmospheric oxygen concentration; it may also occur In babies who have fetal rubella syndrome


  • Small PDA: asymptomatic

  • Large PDA: large left-to-right shunt  left ventricular failure with pulmonary edema causing failure to thrive and tachypnea

  • Adults with undiagnosed PDA may develop PH and present with dyspnea


  • Collapsing high-volume pulses – this is due to the effect of the run-off of blood back down the ductus

  • Loud continuous machinery murmur


  • Pharmacological closure in neonates – indomethacin may induce closure if given early

  • Operative closure – this can be performed as an open procedure in which the PDA is ligated or divided

  • Or using ADO (Amplatzer ductal occluder) by cardiac catheter


  • PDA is a risk fractor for infective endocarditis  antibiotic prophylaxis is required for all patients before operative procedures.

Eisenmenger’s syndrome

Eisenmenger s syndrome
Eisenmenger’s syndrome

  • Refers to the situation in which a congenital cardiac abnormality initially causes acyanotic heart disease, but cyanotic heart disease develops as a consequence of raised pulmonary pressure and shunt reversal

Eisenmenger s syndrome1
Eisenmenger’s syndrome

  • These clinical features are also seen in patients who have cyanotic congenital heart disease

  • Cyanosis develops when the level of reduced hemoglobin is over 5 g/dL.

Complications of eisenmenger s syndrome
Complications of Eisenmenger’s syndrome

  • Clubbing fingers and toes

  • Polycythemia and hyperviscosity- with resulting complications of stroke and venous thrombosis. Regular phlebotomy is the treatment of choice

  • Cerebral abscesses-especially in children

  • Paradoxical emboli- emboli from venous thrombosis may pass across the shunt and give rise to systemic infarcts