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Innovative Scientific Solutions Inc. Air Force Research Lab. Simultaneous Measurements of Pressure and Deformation on a UCAV in the SARL. J. Crafton, S. Fonov, E. Jones, L. Goss V. Fonov Innovative Scientific Solutions Inc. C. Tyler Air Force Research Lab. Motivation: Shorten Design Cycle.

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simultaneous measurements of pressure and deformation on a ucav in the sarl

Simultaneous Measurements of Pressure and Deformation on a UCAV in the SARL

J. Crafton, S. Fonov, E. Jones, L. Goss V. Fonov

Innovative Scientific Solutions Inc.

C. Tyler

Air Force Research Lab

motivation shorten design cycle
Motivation: Shorten Design Cycle

Model Design

Numerical Prediction

Rapid Prototype

Build Model

Pressure, Velocity,

Skin Friction, Geometry

Experimental Data

Compare CFD & EFD

AIAA-0035

AIAA-0440

AIAA-1028

Validate Numerical Code

slide5
Sensitivity to pressure
    • 5% per [psi]
  • Sensitivity to temperature
    • 0.5% per [K]
  • Ideal paint
    • temperature sensitivity independent of pressure
uncertainty in psp measurements liu
Uncertainty in PSP Measurements (Liu)
  • Model parameters
    • Temperature
    • Illumination (model movement & lamp stability)
    • Calibration
    • Photo-degradation & Sedimentation
    • Spectral content of excitation
    • Filter leakage
  • Sensitivity coefficients
  • Compute sensitivity and identify major sources
    • Temperature
    • Illumination
illumination

Probe 1  L1(T,P,I)  signal

Probe 2  L2(T,P,I)  reference

Illumination
  • Model movement/deformation
  • Lamp stability
  • Binary PSP
    • reference probe
  • Luminescence
    • Linear function of illumination
    • Ratio signal/reference
slide8

jet

  • Inclined Impinging Jet
    • Shocks, Expansions, Wall Jet
    • Cold region under jet
    • Recovery Temperature
    • Paint is not isothermal
    • Common in PSP experiments
temperature

Probe 1  L1(T,P,I)  signal

Probe 2  L2(T,P,I)  reference

Temperature
  • Temperature
    • model construction
      • metal  isothermal
      • plastic/ceramic  adiabatic
    • temperature changes all day
    • recovery temperature
  • Binary PSP
    • Use reference probe for temperature correction
  • Reference probe
    • Match temperature sensitivity of PSP
    • Ideal paint is very valuable here (FIB)
binary fib paint
Binary FIB Paint
  • Temperature sensitivity
    • ~ 25 times less than FIB
  • Uncertainty
    • 50 Pa/K
signal channel vs binary
Signal Channel -vs- Binary

M = 0.4

 = 20

 0.4 psi

14

• Illumination error

- 30% of scale

- model displacement

12

psi

low speed psp
Low Speed PSP
  • System approach
    • Binary paint with very little temperature sensitivity
    • Stable illumination source (spectral content essential)
    • Single camera and filter switch
    • Average!!!
    • Post run Wind-off (capture any thermal profile)
    • Process on the mesh if you can (I recommend Sergey)
  • Model
    • Stiff model and mount (no movement if possible)
    • Isothermal materials
  • Tunnel
    • Open circuit tunnel (minimize temperature)
    • Dark and be consistent
1 24 th scale car at 50 m s
1/24th Scale Car at 50 m/s

AFIT Tunnel

Binary FIB

Data acquisition ~ 12 sec

low speed psp v 17 m s

Flow

Low Speed PSP V=17 m/s

NASA Ames (Dr. J. Bell)

Binary FIB

p (psi)

0.05

taps

reference targets

-0.4

ucav flow
UCAV Flow
  • 5 PDV data planes near wing/body junction
  • Mach 0.2
    • free stream ~ 68 m/s
  • 20 angle of attack
ucav in sarl
UCAV in SARL

Vortex from nose

ucav in sarl1
UCAV in SARL

Vortex from nose

Breaking down

Vortex from wing

Body junction

ucav results
UCAV Results
  • compare PSP to taps
    • sigma  0.16 psi  demonstrated 0.005 psi
    • background noise
  • background
    • 7:00 AM  1000
    • 12:00 AM  30000
    • dynamic background
      • cloud noise?
  • shorten exposure time
    • more lamps
  • more interlaced backgrounds

M = 0.4

 = 20

 = 0.16 psi

model deformation
Model Deformation
  • Stereo view of the model
    • signal and reference camera
  • Markers with known positions
    • pressure taps or resection markers
  • Photogrammetry (Stereo PIV)
    • wind-on marker positions on bitmap
    • reconstruct physical location of each marker
    • yields 3 components of deformation
  • Binary PSP Stereo & Photogrammetry System
    • minimal impact on test
    • increase value  pressure and geometry
stereo photogrammetry system
Stereo Photogrammetry System
  • Calibration
    • wind-off markers
    • need a 3D field
  • Dynamic range
    • camera depth of field
  • Accuracy (Stereo PIV)
    • ~ 1/10 pixel in plane
    • ~ 1 pixel out of plane
  • Response time
    • Limited by camera
model deformation1
Model Deformation

• Root to Tip deformation

- d 0.4 in

• Bulk displacement

-  1.0 in

• Improve spatial resolution

- more markers

- non-uniform paint

• Improve frequency response

- faster camera (limited)

M = 0.4

 = 20

conclusions and future work
Conclusions and Future Work
  • Demonstrated measurements of Pressure & Deformation
  • Developed integrated system using binary PSP hardware
  • Binary PSP
    • minimize errors due to illumination and temperature
    • extending PSP to lower speeds
  • Stereo Photogrammetry
    • utilized binary PSP images for displacement measurements
    • determined 3 components of model displacement
  • Future Work
    • Feed deformed geometry back to CFD
    • Tools for quick comparison of EFD/CFD