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20.1 Section Objectives – page 529. Section Objectives: 20.1. Identify the basic characteristics of the fungi kingdom. Explain the role of fungi as decomposers and how this role affects the flow of both energy and nutrients through food chains. Section 20.1 Summary – pages 529-534.

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20 1 section objectives page 529
20.1 Section Objectives – page 529

Section Objectives: 20.1

  • Identify the basic characteristics of the fungi kingdom.
  • Explain the role of fungi as decomposers and how this role affects the flow of both energy and nutrients through food chains.
section 20 1 summary pages 529 534
Section 20.1 Summary – pages 529-534
  • _____ are everywhere—in the air and water, on damp basement walls, in gardens, on foods, and sometimes even between people’s toes.
section 20 1 summary pages 529 5341
Section 20.1 Summary – pages 529-534
  • Some fungi are large, bright, and colorful, whereas others are easily overlooked.
  • Many species grow best in _______ environments at warm temperatures between 20°C and 30°C.
section 20 1 summary pages 529 5342
Section 20.1 Summary – pages 529-534
  • Fungi used to be classified in the plant kingdom because, like plants, many fungi grow anchored in soil and have ___ ___.
  • However, as _________ learned more about fungi, they realized that fungi belong in their own kingdom.
section 20 1 summary pages 529 5343
Section 20.1 Summary – pages 529-534
  • Although there are a few unicellular types of fungi, such as _____, most fungi are multicellular.
  • The basic structural units of multicellular fungi are their threadlike filaments called ______ (HI fee) (singular, hypha), which develop from fungal spores.
section 20 1 summary pages 529 5344
Section 20.1 Summary – pages 529-534

The structure of fungi

Germinating

Spore

Mycelium

Spore

Food Source

section 20 1 summary pages 529 5345
Section 20.1 Summary – pages 529-534
  • There are different types of hyphae in a ______. Some _____ the fungus, some _____ the food source, and others form fungal reproductive structures.
section 20 1 summary pages 529 5346
Section 20.1 Summary – pages 529-534
  • Unlike plants, which have cell walls made of _______, the cell walls of most fungi contain a complex carbohydrate called ____ (KI tun).
  • _____ gives the fungal cell walls both strength and flexibility.
section 20 1 summary pages 529 5347
Section 20.1 Summary – pages 529-534
  • In many types of fungi, cross walls called ___ (singular, septum) divide hyphae into individual cells that contain one or more nuclei.
  • Septa are usually _____, allowing cytoplasm and organelles to flow freely and nutrients to move rapidly from one part of a fungus to another.
section 20 1 summary pages 529 5348
Section 20.1 Summary – pages 529-534

Septum

Nuclei

Cell Wall

Cytoplasm

section 20 1 summary pages 529 5349
Section 20.1 Summary – pages 529-534
  • Some fungi consist of hyphae with no septa.

Nuclei

Cytoplasm

Cell Wall

section 20 1 summary pages 529 53410
Section 20.1 Summary – pages 529-534
  • Under a microscope, you see hundreds of nuclei streaming along in a continuous flow of _________.
  • As in hyphae with septa, the flow of cytoplasm quickly and efficiently disperses ______ and other materials throughout the fungus.
section 20 1 summary pages 529 53411
Section 20.1 Summary – pages 529-534
  • Fungi can be ______.
  • Some cause food to _____. Some cause _______, and some are _______. However, they play an important and beneficial role.
  • In a world without fungi, huge amounts of wastes, dead organisms, and debris, which consist of complex _____ substances, would litter Earth.
section 20 1 summary pages 529 53412
Section 20.1 Summary – pages 529-534
  • Many fungi, along with some bacteria and protists, are _____________.
  • They break down ________ organic substances into raw materials that other living organisms need.
section 20 1 summary pages 529 53413
Section 20.1 Summary – pages 529-534
  • Fungi are ________, and they use a process called _________ digestion to obtain nutrients.
  • In this process, food is digested outside a fungus’s cells, and the digested products are then _______.
section 20 1 summary pages 529 53414
Section 20.1 Summary – pages 529-534

Hyphae absorb

the digested food.

Chemicals released by hyphae digest dead materials.

section 20 1 summary pages 529 53415
Section 20.1 Summary – pages 529-534
  • For example, as some hyphae grow into the cells of an orange, they release digestive ________ that break down the large organic molecules of the orange into smaller molecules.
section 20 1 summary pages 529 53416
Section 20.1 Summary – pages 529-534
  • These small molecules _____ into the fungal hyphae and move in the free-flowing cytoplasm to where they are needed for growth, repair, and reproduction.
section 20 1 summary pages 529 53417
Section 20.1 Summary – pages 529-534
  • A fungus may be a _______, a ______, or a _______ depending on its food source.
  • Saprophytes are ________ and feed on waste or dead organic material.
  • Mutualists live in a s_______ relationship with another organism, such as an alga.

Parasites _____ nutrients from the living cells of their hosts.

section 20 1 summary pages 529 53418
Section 20.1 Summary – pages 529-534

Fungal

hypha

Host cell

Haustorium

section 20 1 summary pages 529 53419
Section 20.1 Summary – pages 529-534
  • Depending on the species and on environmental conditions, a fungus may reproduce _______ or ________.
  • Fungi reproduce sexually by ________, ______, or producing ______.
section 20 1 summary pages 529 53420
Section 20.1 Summary – pages 529-534
  • In fragmentation, pieces of hyphae that are broken off of a _______ grow into new mycelia.
section 20 1 summary pages 529 53421
Section 20.1 Summary – pages 529-534
  • The unicellular fungi called yeasts often reproduce by a process called budding—a form of ______ reproduction in which ______ occurs and a new individual pinches off from the parent, matures, and eventually separates from the parent.

Yeast budding

section 20 1 summary pages 529 53422
Section 20.1 Summary – pages 529-534
  • Most fungi produce _______.
  • When a fungal spore is transported to a place with favorable growing conditions, a threadlike ____ emerges and begins to grow, eventually forming a new mycelium.
  • The ___________ becomes established in the food source.
section 20 1 summary pages 529 53423
Section 20.1 Summary – pages 529-534

Spores

Bread Mold

Sporangium

Hyphae

section 20 1 summary pages 529 53424
Section 20.1 Summary – pages 529-534
  • Many fungi can produce two types of spores—one type by mitosis and the other by ______—at different times during their life cycles.
  • One important criterion for classifying fungi into divisions is their patterns of _______, especially sexual reproduction, during the life cycle.
section 20 1 summary pages 529 53425
Section 20.1 Summary – pages 529-534
  • Many adaptive advantages of fungi involve ______ and their production.
section 20 1 summary pages 529 53426
Section 20.1 Summary – pages 529-534
  • First, the ______ protect spores and, in some cases, prevent them from drying out until they are ready to be released.
  • Second, most fungi produce a _____ number of spores at one time.
section 20 1 summary pages 529 53427
Section 20.1 Summary – pages 529-534
  • Producing so many spores increases the _________ rate and improves the species survival chances.
  • Finally, fungal spores are small and lightweight and can be dispersed by ____, water, and animals such as ____ and insects.
section 1 check
Section 1 Check

The answer is A, spores.

Spores

Bread Mold

Sporangium

Hyphae

20 2 section objectives page 535
20.2 Section Objectives – page 535

Section Objectives 20.2

  • Identify the four major phyla of fungi.
  • Distinguish among the ways spores are produced in zygomycotes, ascomycotes, and basidiomycotes.
  • Summarize the ecological roles of lichens and mycorrhizae.
section 20 2 summary pages 535 543
Section 20.2 Summary – pages 535-543
  • You have probably seen Rhizopus stolonifer, a common ____ mold.
section 20 2 summary pages 535 5431
Section 20.2 Summary – pages 535-543
  • Rhizopus is probably the most familiar member of the phylum ______________ (zy goh mi KOH tuh).
  • Many other members of about 1500 species of zygomycotes are also ____________.
section 20 2 summary pages 535 5432
Section 20.2 Summary – pages 535-543
  • Zygomycotes reproduce asexually by producing ______.
  • They produce a different type of spore when they reproduce sexually.
  • The _____ of zygomycotes do not have septa that divide them into individual cells.
section 20 2 summary pages 535 5433
Section 20.2 Summary – pages 535-543
  • When a Rhizopus spore settles on a moist piece of bread, it _________ and hyphae begin to grow.
  • Some hyphae called ______ (STOH lunz) grow horizontally along the surface of the bread, rapidly producing a mycelium.
section 20 2 summary pages 535 5434
Section 20.2 Summary – pages 535-543
  • Some other hyphae form ______(RI zoydz) that penetrate the food and anchor the mycelium in the bread.
  • Rhizoids secrete _______ needed for extracellular digestion and absorb the digested nutrients.
section 20 2 summary pages 535 5435
Section 20.2 Summary – pages 535-543
  • Asexual reproduction begins when some hyphae grow upward and develop _______ at their tips. Asexual spores develop in the sporangia.
  • When a _________ splits open, hundreds of spores are released.
section 20 2 summary pages 535 5436
Section 20.2 Summary – pages 535-543

Bread Mold

Spores

Sporangium

Hyphae

section 20 2 summary pages 535 5437
Section 20.2 Summary – pages 535-543
  • When zygomycotes reproduce sexually, they produce ______ (ZI guh sporz), which are thick-walled spores that can withstand unfavorable conditions.
section 20 2 summary pages 535 5438
Section 20.2 Summary – pages 535-543
  • Sexual reproduction in Rhizopus occurs when ______ hyphae from two compatible mycelia, called ___ and _____ mating strains, grow together and fuse.
  • Where the haploid hyphae fuse, they each form a _______- (ga muh TAN ghee uhm), a structure containing a haploid nucleus.
section 20 2 summary pages 535 5439
Section 20.2 Summary – pages 535-543

Spores (n)

Spores (n)

Sporangia

Sporangium

- Mating

strain (n)

Hypha

+ Mating

strain (n)

Gametangia

Zygospore

Stolon

Meiosis

Rhizoids

Germination

Asexual Reproduction

Sexual Reproduction

section 20 2 summary pages 535 54310
Section 20.2 Summary – pages 535-543
  • When the haploid nuclei of the two gametangia fuse, a ________ zygote forms.
  • The zygote develops a thick wall, becoming a dormant zygospore.
section 20 2 summary pages 535 54311
Section 20.2 Summary – pages 535-543
  • When environmental conditions are favorable, the zygospore absorbs water, undergoes ______, and germinates to produce a hypha with a sporangium.
  • Each ______ spore formed in the sporangium can grow into a new mycelium.
section 20 2 summary pages 535 54312
Section 20.2 Summary – pages 535-543
  • The ___________ is the largest phylum of fungi, containing about 30,000 species.
  • The ascomycotes are also called __ fungi. Both names refer to tiny saclike structures, each called an ____, in which the sexual spores of the fungi develop.
  • Because they are produced inside an ascus, the sexual spores are called ___________.
section 20 2 summary pages 535 54313
Section 20.2 Summary – pages 535-543
  • During asexual reproduction, ascomycotes produce a different kind of ______.

Conidiophores

  • Fungal hyphae grow up from the mycelium and elongate to form ________________ (kuh NIH dee uh forz).
section 20 2 summary pages 535 54314
Section 20.2 Summary – pages 535-543
  • Chains or _____ of asexual spores called conidiadevelop from the tips of conidiophores.

Conidiophores

section 20 2 summary pages 535 54315
Section 20.2 Summary – pages 535-543
  • Sac fungi are familiar to farmers and gardeners because they cause plant diseases such as apple ___ and ___ of rye.
  • Not all sac fungi have a bad reputation. Ascomycotes can have many different forms.
section 20 2 summary pages 535 54316
Section 20.2 Summary – pages 535-543
  • ______ and ______ are two edible members of this phylum.
section 20 2 summary pages 535 54317
Section 20.2 Summary – pages 535-543
  • Perhaps the most economically important ascomycotes are the ______.
  • Yeasts are unicellular sac fungi that rarely produce hyphae and usually reproduce asexually by _____.
  • Yeasts are ________ and ferment sugars to produce carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol.
section 20 2 summary pages 535 54318
Section 20.2 Summary – pages 535-543
  • Because yeasts produce alcohol, they are used to make wine and beer.
  • Other yeasts are used in _____ because they produce carbon dioxide, the gas that causes bread dough to rise and take on a light, airy texture.
section 20 2 summary pages 535 54319
Section 20.2 Summary – pages 535-543
  • Yeasts are also important tools for research in _______ because they have large chromosomes.
  • A vaccine for the disease ______ B is produced by splicing human genes with those of yeast cells.
  • Because yeasts multiply rapidly, they are an important source of the ______.
section 20 2 summary pages 535 54320
Section 20.2 Summary – pages 535-543
  • Mushrooms, puffballs, stinkhorns, bird’s nest fungi, and bracket fungi are all _____________.

Shelf fungi

section 20 2 summary pages 535 54321
Section 20.2 Summary – pages 535-543

Cap

Gills

Spore-producing

part

Spores

Hyphae

section 20 2 summary pages 535 54322
Section 20.2 Summary – pages 535-543
  • A basidiomycote, such as a _______, has a complex reproductive cycle.
  • What you call a mushroom is a reproductive structure of the fungus. Most of the fungus is _________ and not visible.
section 20 2 summary pages 535 54323
Section 20.2 Summary – pages 535-543
  • There are about 25,000 species of fungi classified as __________, which have no known sexual stage in their life cycle.
  • Although the deuteromycotes may only be able to reproduce ________, another possibility is that their sexual phase has not yet been observed by _________, biologists who study fungi.
section 20 2 summary pages 535 54324
Section 20.2 Summary – pages 535-543
  • If you’ve ever had ___ throat, pneumonia, or other kinds of bacterial infection, your doctor may have prescribed _______—an antibiotic produced from a deuteromycote that is commonly seen growing on fruit.
section 20 2 summary pages 535 54325

Other deuteromycotes are used in the making of foods, such as soy sauce and some kinds of blue-veined cheese.

Section 20.2 Summary – pages 535-543

Still some deuteromycotes are used commercially to produce substances such as citric acid, which gives jams, jellies, soft drinks, and fruit-flavored candies a tart taste.

section 20 2 summary pages 535 54326
Section 20.2 Summary – pages 535-543
  • Certain fungi live in a ___________ association with other organisms.
  • Two of these mutualistic associations that are also __________ are called mycorrhizae and lichens.
section 20 2 summary pages 535 54327
Section 20.2 Summary – pages 535-543
  • A _______ (my kuh RHY zuh) is a mutualistic relationship in which a fungus lives symbiotically with a plant.
  • Most of the fungi that form mycorrhizae are basidiomycotes, but some zygomycotes also form these important relationships.
section 20 2 summary pages 535 54328
Section 20.2 Summary – pages 535-543
  • How does a plant benefit from a mycorrhizal relationship?
  • Fine, thread-like hyphae grow harmlessly around or into the plant’s _____.
  • The hyphae ________ the absorptive surface of the plant’s roots, resulting in more nutrients entering the plant.
section 20 2 summary pages 535 54329
Section 20.2 Summary – pages 535-543
  • Phosphorus, ______, and other minerals in the soil are absorbed by the hyphae and then released into the roots.
  • In addition, the fungus also may help to maintain water in the soil around the plant.
  • In turn, the mycorrhizal fungus benefits by receiving organic nutrients, such as sugars and ___ ____, from the plant.
section 20 2 summary pages 535 54330
Section 20.2 Summary – pages 535-543
  • Plants of a species that have mycorrhizae grow larger and are more productive than those that don’t.
  • In fact, some species cannot ____ without mycorrhizae.

Lady slipper orchid

section 20 2 summary pages 535 54331
Section 20.2 Summary – pages 535-543
  • It’s sometimes hard to believe that the orange, green, and black blotches that you see on rocks, trees, and stone walls are alive.
section 20 2 summary pages 535 54332
Section 20.2 Summary – pages 535-543
  • A _____ (LI kun) is a symbiotic association between a fungus, usually an ascomycote, and a photosynthetic green alga or a ___________, which is an ______.
section 20 2 summary pages 535 54333
Section 20.2 Summary – pages 535-543
  • The fungus portion of the lichen forms a dense web of _____ in which the algae or cyanobacteria grow.
  • Together, the fungus and its _________ partner form a structure that looks like a single organism.
section 20 2 summary pages 535 54334
Section 20.2 Summary – pages 535-543
  • _____ need only light, air, and minerals to grow.
  • The __________ partner provides the food for both organisms.
  • The fungus, in turn, provides its partner with water and minerals that it absorbs from rain and the air, and protects it from changes in environmental conditions.
section 20 2 summary pages 535 54335
Section 20.2 Summary – pages 535-543
  • There are about 20,000 species of lichens.
  • Found worldwide, lichens are _______, being among the first to colonize a barren area.
section 20 2 summary pages 535 54336
Section 20.2 Summary – pages 535-543
  • Not only are lichens pioneers, but they are also ________ of pollution levels in the air.
  • The fungus readily absorbs materials from the air.
  • If pollutants are present, they ___ the fungus.
  • Without the fungal part of a lichen, the photosynthetic partner also ___.
section 20 2 summary pages 535 54337
Section 20.2 Summary – pages 535-543

Lichens

20,000 species

Ascomycotes

30,000 species

Deuteromycotes

25,000 species

Basidiomycotes

25,000 species

Zygomycotes

1500 species

Protists

Archaebacteria

Eubacteria

Species numbers are approximate and subject to change pending discoveries or extinctions.