LEARNING OBJECTIVES. Apply the basic principles and tools of targeting to various emergency situations. Understand the targeting effects of different emergency response options. Develop feasible and effective ways of monitoring and evaluating targeting in emergency operations.
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In this presentation, targeting principles are applied to a range of situations commonly encountered in emergency and post-emergency contexts.
The core standard for targeting in disasters is:
“Humanitarian assistance or services are provided equitably and impartially, based on the vulnerability and needs of individuals or groups affected by disaster.”
WFP’s definition of Emergency:
“Emergencies are defined as urgent situations in which there is clear evidence that an event or series of events has occurred which causes human suffering or imminently threatens humanlives or livelihoods and which the government concerned has not the means to remedy; and it is a demonstrably abnormal event or series of events which produces dislocation in the life of a community on an exceptional scale.”
Steps from identifying an emergency to designing a targeted response :
In some situationstargeting at household or individual level may not be feasible.
In these situations it may be necessary to begin with blanket assistanceto affected areas, and introduce further levels of targeting later (if appropriate).
The stage of an emergency may affect targeting priorities.
A late responsemay require rapid distributions with limited targeting at the beginning.
By contrast, in well-predicted emergenciesit’s possible to establish stable and processes for targeting at various levels.
There are many possible responses to Food Security emergencies, depending on
Food aid may or may not be appropriate.
The choice of response options is closely linked to targeting decisions.
Different types of response are suited to different target groups, or to different targeting methods.
Some responses have in-built targeting effects.
Targeting characteristics of the most common response options:
General ration or cash distribution
Food-for-work or Cash-for-work
Example: Market assistance pilot project (MAPP) in Zimbabwe (2003)
As an alternative to traditional food distributions, C-SAFE approached existing commercial entities that could facilitate a programme aimed at 'filling the market gap' with an affordable maize substitute.
A proposal to use sorghum initially encountered resistance from both retailers and consumers, given its lack of commercial presence in the local market for several generations.
However, within weeks, 150 retailers in 40 high-density Bulawayo suburbs agreed to sell the cereal. Demand exploded from 30 tons to 300 tons a day, and by November 2003 seven local millers were milling and packaging the USAID sorghum to meet consumer demand…
Geographical targeting is usually the first stage of emergency targeting.
Example: Targeting IDPs and host communities in Darfur (2004/5) – balancing inclusion and exclusion errors
Displacement in response to armed conflict is a major cause of hunger in Darfur.
In the initial stages of the conflict, targeting criteria were based mainly on whether a person was displaced.
However, following a food security and nutrition survey, it was determined that rural residents were similarly susceptible to food insecurity, putting them in a more precarious position than some IDPs…
Targeting within pastoralist communitiescould be difficult because of their social and economic organization.
Be careful with generalizations:pastoralist societies are as varied as farming cultures.
Common features which pose challenges for targeting:
Different ideas of fairness
Experience of targeting emergency assistance to pastoralists has been very mixed and often unsuccessful at household and individual levels.
However, there are example that shows that household targeting of pastoralists is possible and sometimes necessary.
It is importantto understand the local social and political context, and workwith beneficiary communities to agree on targeting criteria and processes.
Emergencies are not static situations. They change all the time.
Monitoring information should constantly feed back into programme management.
This need for flexibility and responsiveness continues in the final phase of an emergency
TARGETING DURING RECOVERY AND PHASE-OUT
The two basic planning approaches to targeting during the exit phase of an emergency operation are :
Pick dynamic targeting criteria (such as nutritional status) which will automatically track the recovery process.
Change the targeting strategy, and/or the response option, when food security indicators show that recovery has started.
The monitoring of targeting in emergencies is often particularly weak.
Targeting is a cross-cutting objective which is involved in all stages and all aspects of an emergency operation.
Questions about targeting can therefore be integrated into a wide range of survey types. Formal and informalquantitative and qualitative, methods can all be used.
Ideally you should provide quantitative estimates of your selected core targeting indicators, contextualized by a qualitative assessment.
If this is not possible do what’s possible with the resources you have, using the analytical framework provided in this course.
Sometimes a rapid qualitative investigation can provide enough information for action, even if the findings cannot be expressed in exact percentages.
Steps to be taken when producing a monitoring report:
1. Define the key questions to be answered and the quantitative indicators to be calculated (if any)
2. Review existing information
3. Design your data collection instruments
4. Collect data through fieldwork
5. Process and analyse the data
6. Interpret the findings
7. Recommend any necessary changes or improvements in the targeting
In emergencies, the ethical and humanitarian reasons for targeting are paramount.
Priority is usually given to reaching as many as possible of the target group – that is, maximizing coverage (or, to put it another way, minimizing exclusion errors). In order to achieve this, it is often necessary to accept some degree of inclusion error.
Targeting options are affected by the nature of the emergency, the timing of the intervention, security and logistical access, and the resources available.
The definition of target groups should always be based on a local analysis of the emergency and its context.
The choice of response options is also closely connected with targeting decisions.
Different types of interventions have inherent targeting effects or limitations, and are more likely to reach some groups than others.
Flexibility and feedback are essential, because emergency situations are constantly changing.
Monitoring and evaluation of targeting in emergencies can be challenging, but it can and should be incorporated into all emergency programmes.