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Urbanization. Americans Migrate to the Cities. Lacked money to buy farms Lacked education Remained in the cities with factory jobs Rural Americans also moved to the city. New Urban Environment. Skyscrapers Louis Sullivan Mass Transit Horse car Cable car Electric trolley car.

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americans migrate to the cities
Americans Migrate to the Cities
  • Lacked money to buy farms
  • Lacked education
  • Remained in the cities with factory jobs
  • Rural Americans also moved to the city
new urban environment
New Urban Environment
  • Skyscrapers
    • Louis Sullivan
  • Mass Transit
    • Horse car
    • Cable car
    • Electric trolley car
separation by class
Separation by Class
  • High Society
  • Middle-Class Gentility
    • Doctors, lawyers, managers, teachers
    • “streetcar suburbs”
  • Working Class
    • Tenements – crowded multi-family apartments
    • Industrial workers

The intersection of Orchard and Hester Streets on New York’s Lower East Side, photographed ca. 1905. Unlike the middle classes, who worked and played hidden away in offices and private homes, the Jewish lower-class immigrants who lived and worked in this neighborhood spent the greater part of their lives on the streets. SOURCE:Oil over a photograph.The Granger Collection (4E534.23).


This picture of Bohemian immigrant cigar makers at work in a New York City tenement first appeared in Jacob Riis’s How the Other Half Lives (1890), a pathbreaking work of “exposure journalism.” Apartments like these, owned and rented out by cigar manufacturers, served as both living quarters and workshops, leading to filthy and unhealthy conditions. Note how the entire family works together to roll as many cigars as possible.

SOURCE:Bohemian Cigar Makers at Work in Their Tenement ,ca.1890. Museum of the City of New York,The Jacob A.Riis Collection, (#

urban problems
Urban Problems
  • Crimes, disease
  • Jacob Riis “How the Other Half Lives”
urban politics
Urban Politics
  • Political Machine – informal political group
  • Party bosses – ran the political machine
    • George Plunkitt – Irish NYC most powerful
  • Graft & Fraud
    • Graft is getting money through dishonest means
  • Tammany Hall
    • New York political machine
    • William M. “Boss” Tweed
  • Thomas Nast
exodus to kansas
Exodus to Kansas
  • Benjamin “Pap” Singleton
    • Organized mass migration of African Americans from rural south to Kansas
voting issues
Voting Issues
  • 15th amendment prohibits states from denying citizens the right to vote based on “race, color, or previous conditions of servitude”
  • Loopholes
    • Poll tax
      • Required to pay in order to register to vote in MS
  • Literacy tests
  • Grandfather clause
    • In Louisianan any man allowed to vote if had ancestor on voting roles in 1867.
legalizing segregation
Legalizing Segregation
  • Segregation
    • Separation of the races
  • Jim Crow Laws
    • Statutes enforcing segregation
  • Supreme Court overturns Civil Rights Act of 1875
    • Prohibited keeping people out of public places based on race
  • Result is now private organizations & businesses were free to practice segregation
plessy v ferguson
Plessy v. Ferguson
  • Homer Plessy
    • African American in Louisiana
    • Arrested for riding on a “whites only” car
  • Case goes to Supreme Court
    • Ruling upholds Louisiana law and set new doctrine of “separate but equal”
racial violence
Racial Violence
  • Ida B. Wells
    • Launched fearless crusade against lynching
    • Spoke out against lynching of African American grocers
  • Lynching is execution without proper court proceedings
mob violence and lynching
Mob Violence and Lynching
  • Racial violence escalated.
  • Between 1882 and 1900 lynchings usually exceeded a hundred each year.
    • They were announced in newspapers and became public spectacles.
    • Railroads offered special excursion prices to people traveling to attend lynchings.
    • Postcards were often printed as souvenirs.
  • Ida B. Wells launched a one-woman anti-lynching crusade.
    • She argued that lynching was a brutal device to get rid of African Americans who were becoming too powerful or prosperous.
african american response
African American Response

Booker T Washington

W.E.B. Bois

racism and accommodation
Racism and Accommodation
  • The turn of the century was an intensely racist era.
    • Segregation was institutionalized throughout the South.
    • Violent attacks on blacks were supported by vicious characterizations in popular culture.
  • Racism was based on the assumed innate inferiority of blacks.
    • Racial Darwinism justified a policy of neglect and repression.
    • Southern progressives pushed for paternalistic uplift.
  • Booker T. Washington emerged as the most prominent black leader.
    • Washington advocated black accommodation and urged that blacks focus on self-reliance and economic improvement.

In July 1905, a group of African American leaders met in Niagara Falls, Ontario, to protest legal segregation and the denial of civil rights to the nation’s black population. This portrait was taken against a studio backdrop of the falls. In 1909, the leader of the Niagara movement, W. E. B. Du Bois (second from right, middle row) founded and edited The Crisis, the influential monthly journal of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. SOURCE:Photographs and Print Division,Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture,The New York Public Library,Astor,Lenox and Tilden Foundations.

racial justice the naacp black women s activism
Racial Justice, the NAACP, Black Women’s Activism
  • W. E. B. Du Bois criticized Booker T. Washington for accepting “the alleged inferiority of the Negro.”
    • Du Bois supported programs that sought to attack segregation, the right to vote, and secure city equality.
  • He helped found the interracial organization known as the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.
  • Black women became a powerful force for social services.
    • They organized settlement houses, campaigned for suffrage, temperance, and advances in public health.

FIGURE 20.1 African American Representation in Congress, 1867–1900 Black men served in the U.S. Congress from 1870 until 1900. All were Republicans.

nativism and jim crow
Nativism and Jim Crow
  • Chart: African American Representation in Congress
  • Neither McKinley nor Bryan addressed the increased

racism and nativism throughout the nation.

  • Nativists blamed foreign workers for hard times and

considered them unfit for democracy.

  • The decline of the Populist party led to the establishment

of white supremacy as the political force in the South.

    • Southern whites enacted a system of legal segregation

and disenfranchised blacks, approved by the Supreme


  • Reformers abandoned their traditional support for black

rights and accepted segregation and disenfranchisement.