Urbanization. Americans Migrate to the Cities. Lacked money to buy farms Lacked education Remained in the cities with factory jobs Rural Americans also moved to the city. New Urban Environment. Skyscrapers Louis Sullivan Mass Transit Horse car Cable car Electric trolley car.
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The intersection of Orchard and Hester Streets on New York’s Lower East Side, photographed ca. 1905. Unlike the middle classes, who worked and played hidden away in offices and private homes, the Jewish lower-class immigrants who lived and worked in this neighborhood spent the greater part of their lives on the streets. SOURCE:Oil over a photograph.The Granger Collection (4E534.23).
This picture of Bohemian immigrant cigar makers at work in a New York City tenement first appeared in Jacob Riis’s How the Other Half Lives (1890), a pathbreaking work of “exposure journalism.” Apartments like these, owned and rented out by cigar manufacturers, served as both living quarters and workshops, leading to filthy and unhealthy conditions. Note how the entire family works together to roll as many cigars as possible.
SOURCE:Bohemian Cigar Makers at Work in Their Tenement ,ca.1890. Museum of the City of New York,The Jacob A.Riis Collection, (#126.96.36.199.150).
Booker T Washington
In July 1905, a group of African American leaders met in Niagara Falls, Ontario, to protest legal segregation and the denial of civil rights to the nation’s black population. This portrait was taken against a studio backdrop of the falls. In 1909, the leader of the Niagara movement, W. E. B. Du Bois (second from right, middle row) founded and edited The Crisis, the influential monthly journal of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. SOURCE:Photographs and Print Division,Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture,The New York Public Library,Astor,Lenox and Tilden Foundations.
FIGURE 20.1 African American Representation in Congress, 1867–1900 Black men served in the U.S. Congress from 1870 until 1900. All were Republicans.
racism and nativism throughout the nation.
considered them unfit for democracy.
of white supremacy as the political force in the South.
and disenfranchised blacks, approved by the Supreme
rights and accepted segregation and disenfranchisement.