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Strategic information management and leadership practice. I. ICT, work, and communication • Management and internal and external practices • Communities of practice II. System success and failure • Customer relationship management III . Knowledge management

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Strategic information management and leadership practice


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    1. Strategic information management and leadership practice I. ICT, work, and communication • Management and internal and external practices • Communities of practice II. System success and failure • Customer relationship management III. Knowledge management • KM and intellectual capital • KM and data management IV. SIML careers • Proactive management

    2. I. ICT, work, and communication Internal and external practices Environment Organization External: Internal: Scanning Leading Learning Planning Representing Monitoring Negotiating Controlling Negotiating At the boundary Gatekeeping Disseminating Liaison Boundary Maintenance

    3. I. ICT, work, and communication Leading An interpersonal role based on manager-subordinate relationships Involves routine exercise of power and decision making Managers define and structure work environments Pursue organizational strategies and objectives Oversee and questions activities Select, encourage, promote and discipline Balance subordinate and organizational needs for efficient operations

    4. I. ICT, work, and communication Planning A decision making role where managers establish goals, policies, and procedures Reflecting on the consequences of different plans, a manager selects and implements an optimal plan for the team This requires a long-term view Planning reduces the uncertainty of change Provides direction and allows a manager communicate what needs to be done at specific times A plan is a structure and framework for action

    5. I. ICT, work, and communication Monitoring Managers need reliable procedures to attend to internal workings of the workgroup and the organizational and external environment They should constantly seek information to detect changes, threats and opportunities Observing performance and anticipating problems They build, maintain, use, and extend formal and informal intelligence systems It requires building contacts outside the workgroup and training staff to communicate information i.a.cnn.net/cnn/2006/US/Careers/03/24/cb.boss.spying/story.boss.spying.jpg

    6. I. ICT, work, and communication Controlling To manage costs and meet organizational goals The manager must be able to exercise power over subordinates, especially time and activities Getting them to do what you want when you want them to do it Control is linked to planning Managers set benchmarks and goals They must be able to control the resources needed to get the work done www.bedin.no/Images/captain-controlling-speed.jpg

    7. I. ICT, work, and communication Negotiating There is competition for time, resources, attention, and rewards Conflict is a natural, recurring part of organizational life found in relationships among individuals and groups Negotiation is a way to resolve competition and conflict Managers use it to come to an agreement that satisfies everyone’s needs Goal: to at least satisfy all parties in a way preferable to what they could achieve without negotiating www.sisnic.co.uk/images/bateman/financial_planning_small.jpg

    8. I. ICT, work, and communication Practices at the boundary Gatekeeping is a boundary spanning role linking internal and external networks Managerial practice at the workgroup or departmental boundary involves control of the flow of information, people, and resources The manager is information filter and decision maker Goal: provide subordinates with the right information (and resources) in the right amount in the right form at the right time Managers also control access to their domains

    9. I. ICT, work, and communication Liaison Based on interpersonal relationships, connecting the manager to peers and superiors Interpersonal skills shape and maintain internal and external contacts for information exchange A system of favors and obligations arises Relationships arise from formal authority and status that support information and decision activities A manager’s contacts give access to organizational stores of knowledge (facts, requirements, solutions) and resources

    10. I. ICT, work, and communication Boundary maintenance and protection The manager works at the boundary between the workgroup and the organization to protect the workgroup by manipulating its boundaries Attempts to prevent a drain of human and material resources out of the group Attempts to acquire resources for the group Boundaries are porous and shift over time and with the situation This requires other managerial practices (negotiation)

    11. I. ICT, work, and communication External practices Environmental scanning: much managerial information comes from external sources Events and changes in the environment send signals that organizations detect, decode, and use It is a source of information, resources, and ecological variation Scanning is the acquisition and use of information about events and trends in the external environment Choo, C.W. (1998). The knowing organization: How organizations use information to construct meaning, create knowledge and make decisions. Oxford University Press.

    12. I. ICT, work, and communication Where to scan www.xecu.net/schaller/marketing/mktglnts_files/image004.gif

    13. I. ICT, work, and communication Representing (figurehead) This is another of Mintzberg’s interpersonal roles Representing the workgroup to external audiences These are within and external to the organization The manager participates in organizational ceremonies It is the manager’s responsibility to carry out social, inspirational, legal and cultural duties The manager is a symbol She must be on hand for people and agencies that will only deal with her because of status and authority

    14. I. ICT, work, and communication • Community of practice (Lave and Wegner) • CoPs form around practices that are informally learned • They typically emerge and are not artificially developed • Informal networks supporting practitioners as they develop shared meanings • Social learning, negotiating meaning; preserving and creating knowledge; sharing information • Identity serves as the glue that connects members of the community • Legitimate peripheral participation: apprenticeship that allows newcomers to learn to participate in the CoP

    15. I. ICT, work, and communication • Professional socialization and identity • CoPs provide a context for professional socialization to build professional identity • Everyday practice is a more powerful source of socialization than intentional pedagogy • Participants need socialization in order to learn the professional identity of a particular profession • CoP serves as effective scaffolding to support professional development • IT (listservs) are not effective social integrators for professionals working at different sites

    16. I. ICT, work, and communication • CoP serves as effective scaffolding to support professional development • Listservs are not effective social integrators for professionals working at different sites • Most effective for sharing work-related technical information • Least effective for sharing important cultural meanings about how to approach work and develop professional identities • Identity formation supported practice but did not appear to be strongly supported by IT

    17. II. System success and failure Communities of practice: Improving knowledge management in business The author conducts a literature review of articles focused on knowledge management between 1998-2009 and finds that the content has shifted from technological issues to social and administrative issues He concludes that the research indicates that CoPs are increasingly important in KM ~ Is the argument persuasive? Did the author convince you of the importance of CoPs in KM? ~ As a manager, what is your take-away from this article?

    18. II. System success and failure KM: organizations generate knowledge and information and allow employees access for immediate use Knowledge creation is a key source for competitive advantage in organizations Strategic management and IS are fundamental disciplines in KM Organizational culture and organizational behavior may also influence KM However there is no consensus regarding the value, meaning and usefulness of KM as a management tool Rivera, J.C.A. (2011). Communities of Practice: Improving Knowledge Management in Business. Business Education & Administration, 3(1), 101-111

    19. II. System success and failure Organizational knowledge: the capacity of a company to create new knowledge and distribute it throughout the organization Knowledge as a productive asset KM allows organizations to transfer the right knowledge to right people at the right time It is a management process that adds value to the company and promotes an efficient performance It must take into account the organizational culture and human resources participation

    20. II. System success and failure 1998-2004: 60% of CoP articles related to organizational behavior Articles were more academic, cultural and theoretically based, not technically oriented 2005-2009: 60% of CoP articles were related to technological, managerial and cultural orientations Theoretical constructs have been receiving a fair treatment in literature include management, technology and organizational behavior topics CoPsare an excellent platform for better performance in KM, because they attend to administrative, technological and cultural factors

    21. Strategic information management and leadership practice I. ICT, work, and communication • Management and internal and external practices • Communities of practice II. System success and failure • Customer relationship management III. Knowledge management • KM and intellectual capital • KM and data management IV. SIML careers • Proactive management

    22. II. System success and failure What makes for CRM system success - Or failure? Foss, Stone and Ekinciinvestigate factors leading to the success and failure of CRM projects, noting that more than half fail Poor planning, lack of clear objectives and not recognizing the need for business change were the main reasons that CRM projects failed ~What are some characteristics of projects likely to fail? ~Why does it take so long for problems to surface in these types of projects?

    23. II. System success and failure Companies are investing large sums of money in CRM projects ($10.9 billion by 2010) Goal is to gain a competitive edge Research shows, however, that many projects do not result in significant gains in performance 70% produce losses or no bottom-line improvement Projects represent major changes in ways that firms deal with customers Also requires change from partners, suppliers Foss, B., Stone, M. and Ekinci, Y. (2008). What makes for CRM system success - Or failure? Journal of Database Marketing & Customer Strategy Management, 15(2), 68-78.

    24. II. System success and failure CRM: technology-based business management tool for developing and leveraging customer knowledge Effectively segment customers Develop and maintain long-term relationships with profitable customers Determine how to handle unprofitable customers Customize market offerings and promotional efforts Operational: reduces operating costs and improving customer handling Analytical: aggregating and mining customer information

    25. II. System success and failure Critical success factors Readiness assessment; strategic change management (organizational and cultural); cross functional project management; employee engagement Critical failure factors Defining the initiative as technological; system-centric view; poor understanding of customer lifetime value Lack of management support/buy in; poor change management; lack of integration into larger systems Poor understanding of processes needed to make system work

    26. II. System success and failure Findings Types of projects: customer data and analytics, marketing and campaign management, distribution channels Types of activities: call centers, adding capacity, web- based CRM; integration of CRM across channels Problems remain hidden for too long Not sufficient support/incentive for disclosure Lack of good governance and oversight Sets off cascade of delay, recovery and delay

    27. II. System success and failure Cost of poor project management When issues do arose, it is too late to address them with tactical and immediate corrections The project is then over time and budget and required shifting deadlines Each request for extension reduces confidence of upper level managers Business benefits are delayed or lost New business areas or initiatives not launched New markets not entered

    28. Strategic information management and leadership practice I. ICT, work, and communication • Management and internal and external practices • Communities of practice II. System success and failure • Customer relationship management III. Knowledge management • KM and intellectual capital • KM and data management IV. SIML careers • Proactive management

    29. III. Knowledge management What is knowledge management? An integrated approach to identifying, managing and sharing an enterprise's information assets Databases, documents, policies and procedures, and previously unarticulated expertise and experience resident in individual workers Gartner Group 1996 Question: are investments in KM systems worth it? Importance of having reliable techniques for evaluating KM performance Chen, M.Y. and Chen, A.P. (2006). Knowledge management performance evaluation: a decade review from 1995 to 2004 Journal of Information Science, 32(1), 17-38

    30. III. Knowledge management Assumptions of KM A systematic process of finding, selecting, organizing, and presenting information to improve employee comprehension in a specific area of interest Goal: to create value and improve performance Create, store, retrieve, analyze and distribute structured and unstructured information Business value generated by the explicit management of knowledge networks To extract meaning and assess relevance to answer questions, find opportunities, solve current problems

    31. III. Knowledge management Knowledge managers work with different sources of information and knowledge seeking their business value and possibility of use in innovation Business documents, forms, data bases, spreadsheets, e-mail, news and press articles, technical journals and reports, contracts, web documents Working with tacit and explicit knowledge Socialization: tacit to tacit (on the job training) Externalization: tacit to explicit (articulation) Combination: explicit to explicit (integration) Internalization: explicit to tacit (understanding)

    32. III. Knowledge management Benefits Qualitative Improving employees’ skills Improving quality strategies Improving core business processes Developing customer relationships Developing supplier relationships Goal: expand firm’s knowledge of key drivers of customer satisfaction and business process excellence, strengthen skills to develop profitable growth strategies

    33. III. Knowledge management Benefits Quantitative Decreasing operation costs Decreasing product cycle time Increasing productivity Increasing market share Increasing shareholder equity Increasing patent income

    34. III. Knowledge management KM is embodied, practical and on-going and should be embedded in the organization with clear business objectives to deliver commercial benefits It should link to organizational structures, business processes and IT and account for cultural and human issues Applications should have practical, measurable steps that deliver concrete results and support formal and informal networks Identify, map, codify and capture knowledge so it can be accessed, shared, and applied

    35. III. Knowledge management A process model of establishing knowledge management: Insights from a longitudinal field study Kjaergaard and Kautzinvestigate the process of establishing a knowledge management system focusing on how relevant stakeholders make sense of a situation They see KM as a “autonomous venturing process” and use this concept to explain why the attempt to establish KM failed ~ What does sense making have to do with the process of establishing KM? ~ From their point of view, why did the process fail?

    36. III. Knowledge management They studied a process by which a company tried to get KM up and running Focus on individuals and knowledge related processes rather than on ICT 18 month ethnography in a Danish high-tech firm as people tried to implement KM in the value chain Led to a range of bottom up activities An intranet, an in-house KM consulting unit, and an effort to better use knowledge coming from value chain partners Kjaergaard, A. and Kautz, K. (2008). A process model of establishing knowledge management: Insights from a longitudinal field study. Omega, 36(2), 282-297.

    37. III. Knowledge management Process began with KM as information systems Expanding existing systems and ability to store data KM as organizational practice Included as an activity within a new marketing and sales unit New ways to communicate and share knowledge KM as process integration Seen as a subroutine within other activities such as product launches and marketing promotions It fades into the background

    38. III. Knowledge management Framework: KM venturing Accounting for the bottom up development Involves creating initiatives, negotiating to stabilize them, formalizing for buy in Autonomous strategic action and sense making (enactment) play roles here Action attitude Initial excitement changed over time into resentment Perceived managerial inaction Systematic lack of interest and support

    39. III. Knowledge management Relationship between intellectual capital and knowledge management: An empirical investigation Hsu and Sabherwai argue that there is an unexplored relationship between IC and KM that influences business processes KM facilitates innovation but not capabilities of IC A learning culture facilitates IC and innovation but not KM ~ How do KM and IC improve firm performance? ~ As a manager, what lessons can you take from this research?

    40. III. Knowledge management They assume that intellectual capital and knowledge management are distinct but interrelated sources of competitive advantage KM: doing what is needed to get the most out of explicit and tacit knowledge resources Focus: the processes and practices for managing IC IC captures the sum of all knowledge firms utilize for competitive advantage Focus: examining the nature of organizational knowledge and how it affects firm performance Hsu, I.C. and Sabherwai, R. (2012). Relationship between Intellectual Capital and Knowledge Management: An Empirical Investigation. Decision Sciences, 43(3), 489-524

    41. III. Knowledge management They wanted to find out how IC and KM affect firm performance when both aspects are considered When both KM and IC are considered, through which mediating factors do they affect firm performance? How do KM and IC affect each other? How does organizational culture affect IC? Does a learning culture facilitate organizational knowledge and IC? Does a learning culture facilitate KM directly, or through IC?

    42. III. Knowledge management IC refers to the sum of all the organization's knowledge resources, which exist within or outside the organization Includes of human capital, and structural capital, which includes organizational and customer capital Human capital: the knowledge, skills, and capabilities of individual employees Organizational capital:the institutionalized knowledge and codified experience residing in databases, manuals, culture, systems, structures, and processes Social capital:the knowledge embedded in networks of relationships and interactions among individuals

    43. III. Knowledge management KM: firms doing what is needed to get the most out of knowledge resources through acquisition, conversion, and application Processes of acquiring new knowledge, converting it into a usable and easily accessed form, and applying it Acquisition: developing new knowledge from data, information, or knowledge Conversion: making acquired knowledge useful by structuring or transforming tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge Application: using knowledge to perform tasks (the party applying it does not have to understand it

    44. III. Knowledge management How IC affects KM Social capital facilitates KM: interpersonal interactions enable knowledge integration, within-firm knowledge sharing, interfirm knowledge transfer, and knowledge creation Human capital enables KM: individuals can develop appropriate and needed KM processes and use their knowledge to improve KM Organizational capital enables KM: various forms including transactive memory systems, organizational structure, and IT can be leveraged in developing KM processes

    45. III. Knowledge management Firm performance: the extent to which business objectives are achieved Efficiency: the organization’s ability to achieve the same level of output with a lower level of input, or achieve a greater level of output with the same level of input KM can enhance efficiency by reducing the need to transfer knowledge Knowledge sharing reduces or eliminates redundancy in knowledge creation or learning Enables productivity through acquisition, conversion, and application of knowledge possessed by others

    46. III. Knowledge management Dealing with data: Science librarians' participation in data management at Association of Research libraries institutions Federal agencies including NSF and NIH now require that funding proposals have data management plans The authors survey science librarians to find out their state of readiness for working on DM planning. ~ What skills do science librarians need to handle the increasing demand for data management? ~ What are the impacts of open access to data on scientific research and what is the role of the science librarian in this process?

    47. III. Knowledge management Funding agency mandates for formal data management are recent NSF: researchers must include a data management plan with their proposals (since 2011) Includes information about the types of data and metadata to be gathered in the course of the research Policies and provisions for re-use of the data Plans for long-term data archiving NIH did this in 2003 Antell, K., Foote, J.B., Turner, J., and Shults, B. (2013). Dealing with data: Science librarians' participation in data management at Association of Research libraries institutions. College and Research Libraries.

    48. III. Knowledge management Academic libraries now deal with data management issues with science librarians in the lead Survey of science librarians finds uncertainty and optimism Uncertainty about the roles and skills required and involvement of other organizations Optimism about applying “traditional” skills to this emerging field of academic librarianship Librarians already have expertise for many DM tasks Organizing information, applying metadata standards, providing access to information

    49. III. Knowledge management Concepts E-science: large scale science that will be carried out through distributed global collaborations enabled by the net Data curation: the process of examining, testing and selecting information to be deposited into a database (scientist) The intent to store, provide access, preserve, and carry forward into the future with assurance that the data will be accessible and retrievable for future verification or use (librarian)