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April 4th , 2012. Argument and Support. The Purposes of Arguing. To win To convince To explore or reach a decision To change yourself. Creating an Arguable Thesis.

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the purposes of arguing
The Purposes of Arguing
  • To win
  • To convince
  • To explore or reach a decision
  • To change yourself
creating an arguable thesis
Creating an Arguable Thesis
  • It attempts to convince readers of something, change their minds about something, or urge them to do something—or it explores a topic in order to make a wise decision (It has a purpose).
  • It addresses a problem for which no easily acceptable solution exists or asks a question to which no absolute answer exists.
  • It presents a position that readers might realistically have varying perspectives on.
arguable or not
Arguable or not?
  • English is the greatest field of study in academia.
arguable or not1
Arguable or not?
  • English is the greatest field of study in academia.
    • Arguable
      • People can have different opinions about this.
      • There is no absolute answer about what the greatest field of study is.
      • Support can be provided that might convince an audience to believe this claim.
arguable or not2
Arguable or not?
  • Thousands of students study English each semester at Texas Tech.
arguable or not3
Arguable or not?
  • Thousands of students study English each semester at Texas Tech.
    • Not arguable
      • This is easily proven.
      • No one can realistically debate this.
      • There is no real purpose behind this claim other than to inform.
formulating a working thesis
Formulating a Working Thesis
  • Section 9f in the St. Martin’s handbook.

Do this for your topic.

    • Begin with a claim/ arguable statement.
    • Attach a reason.
    • Consider the assumptions behind this claim.
types of appeals
Types of appeals
  • Ethical
  • Logical
  • Emotional
ethical appeals
Ethical Appeals
  • Makes the author or the argument seem more trustworthy
    • Establishes credibility
    • Indicates good moral character
    • Shows the author’s goodwill
  • Franklin Templeton: “Global Perspective”
how to establish credibility in your argument
How to Establish Credibility in Your Argument
  • If it is applicable, share your own experience with a topic.
  • Demonstrate that you have given the topic a lot of thought.
  • Demonstrate that you have thoroughly researched the topic and have support for your claim.
  • Show fairness to counter arguments.
  • Find some common ground with the opposition.
logical appeals
Logical Appeals
  • Facts
  • Statistics
  • Reasoning
  • Second hand evidence
    • Expert testimony
    • Other trustworthy sources
  • IBM: Everyday Products with Intelligence
how to make logical appeals in your argument
How to Make Logical Appeals in Your Argument
  • Examples, Precedents, and Narratives.
    • These should allow the audience to make generalizations about the topic.
    • Narrative can also be used as ethical or emotional appeals.
  • Expert testimony
    • Dr. Soandso says this, so I should probably do it.
    • These should be: current, qualified, and respectable.
  • Show cause and effect relationships
using inductive or deductive reasoning
Using Inductive or Deductive Reasoning.
  • Deductive: Large idea -> Small idea.
    • Mexican food gives me heartburn, therefore these tamales will give me heartburn.
  • Inductive: Small ideas-> Big idea.
    • I have gotten heartburn the last 10 times I’ve eaten Mexican food, therefore Mexican food must give me heartburn.
emotional appeals
Emotional Appeals
  • Intended to draw out emotions to help convince the audience
    • Anger/ Outrage
    • Sadness/ Sympathy
    • Happiness/ Desire
  • Save an Orphan
using emotional appeals in your argument
Using Emotional Appeals in Your Argument
  • Description and concrete language
    • Show the struggle, severity, or details to draw out a reaction.
  • Figurative language
    • Draw a parallel to another situation that is more extreme.
  • Target these toward your audience.
parts of an argument
Parts of an Argument
  • Claim
  • Reason (for making the claim)
    • Combine these to make a thesis.
  • Assumptions
    • Connects the claim to the reason(s)
  • Evidence
    • What supports your argument?
  • Qualifiers
    • Are there exceptions that need to be made?
  • Either, or fallacies
    • Either you are a republican or you are a democrat.
  • Non-Sequitur
    • If we can put a man on Mars, we can cure cancer.
  • Oversimplification
    • If we outlaw smoking, nobody will smoke.
  • See more in section 8f of the e-book.
  • Qualifiers can help you be more accurate
    • Avoid offending people
    • If your argument is too absolute.
    • Helps avoid fallacies.
      • Professors are pompous.
        • Offensive, not enough evidence, oversimplification fallacy
      • Most professors are occasionally pompous.
        • Qualified, more easily argued, considers complexity
using sources
Using Sources
  • Provide background information on your topic.
  • Demonstrate your knowledge of the topic to readers.
  • Cite authority and testimony in support of your thesis.
  • Provide facts and/or stories that support your thesis.
  • Demonstrate fairness to opposing arguments.
brief assignment 7 analysis of logical support and underlying assumptions in an argument
Brief Assignment 7: Analysis of Logical Support and Underlying Assumptions in an Argument
  • You’ll be looking at the ways the author’s support reflects the his/her assumptions and how it fits in with the logic of the argument.
things to write about
Things to write about:
  • What is the argument and purpose?
  • Who is the audience?
  • What kind of support is used?
  • Why did the author choose to use this kind of support?
  • What does the support tell you the assumptions are?
finding the assumptions
Finding the assumptions.
  • Because they endanger the lives of farmworkers, pesticides should be banned
    • Workers have a right to a safe working environment.
    • Chemicals that make the workplace unsafe deserve to be banned.
finding the assumptions1
Finding the assumptions
  • Because off-shore drilling pollutes the ocean, legislation should be passed to police it.
    • Polluting the ocean is bad and should be stopped.
    • Legislation is the best way to affect industrial change.
draft 2 1
Draft 2.1
  • Researched Argument
  • Objective: To practice locating and evaluating sources and then integrating those sources into a researched argument.
  • Description: To complete this assignment, write an argument using the strategies and structures described in your textbook and the handbook. The argument should have an identifiable thesis, lines of argument, logical support, ethical and emotional appeals (if applicable), and consideration of alternative views.
  • You should use 6 sources from the TTU library or library databases as specified by your instructor for this assignment. Your essay should be 1500 words in length, not including the list of works cited. Please use MLA format (see Ch. 16 of your handbook) for in-text citations and your list of works cited.
organizing your argument
Organizing your argument
  • Minimum 5 part structure
    • Introduction, body (three parts),conclusion.
the body of an argument
The body of an Argument
  • Main argument
    • Your claims and support.
  • Objection
    • A counter argument that questions part or all of your argument.
  • Reply
    • Your argument that the objection is not valid or strong enough to refute your argument.
thinking about your argument
Thinking about your argument
  • What claim should you make?
  • What is the reason for this claim?
  • What are the assumptions behind this claim?
  • What is the best kind of evidence you should use?
    • Emotional, Ethical, Logical
  • Does the claim need to be qualified?
    • out of respect to religious, political, or some other reason
    • To make the claim more precise?
  • Is your argument based on a fallacy?
    • It shouldn’t be
start with your thesis statement
Start with your thesis statement
  • What do you want to argue?
  • What is the reason for this argument?
  • Start with your thesis and begin outlining what your argument will be, what the premises are, where you will put the counterargument.
read the short essay on p 386
Read the short essay on p. 386
  • What is her argument and purpose?
  • Who is her audience?
  • What kind of support does she use?
  • How does this support help her purpose?
    • What is effective? What isn’t?
  • This is how you should approach BA7.
assignment change
Assignment Change
  • Since we have discussed the article by Stephanie Coontz, you may not use it for BA7
  • Choose between the remaining two articles for your analysis.