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Young Adults from Foster Care

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  1. Young Adults from Foster Care Tonia Stott, MSW PhD Candidate

  2. Acknowledgements This research is supported by: • A NIDA R36 (Dissertation) Grant • A SSWR Doctoral Fellows Award (2007)

  3. Study Selection • The Arizona Division of Children, Youth, & Families (DCYF) supplied the names and last known contact information for Young Adults who turned 18 years old while in the custody of DCYF. • Recruitment packets were mailed to all Young Adults for whom there was a valid address.

  4. Recruitment • 2019 Young Adults (YAs) were identified over the course of the study who were under the age of 21 at the time the recruitment packet was mailed. • 1831 Recruitment packets were mailed • About half the recruitment packets were returned as undeliverable • 28 additional YAs responded to flyers/ads through self-referral • 183 YAs enrolled in the study • 123 YAs participated in the interview

  5. Participants 123 participated • 5 were excluded from the study because they did not meet selection criteria or could not be competently interviewed: • 1 was likely not a YA from Foster Care • 1 was in a DDD home • 1 was at Arizona State Hospital • 1 was incomprehensible & possibly mentally ill • 1 was Spanish Speaking only • Administrative data of placement history was unavailable for 4 participants

  6. Interviews • The interviews took place between July 2007 and December 2008 • 26 interviews were conducted by students in the Child Welfare Training Units • 97 interviews were conducted by the Primary Researcher • Of the 118 included in the study, 111 are complete, 7 are incomplete

  7. Age 55% 18 31% 19 8% 20 6% 21 Gender 72% female 28% male Race 8.5% Black 36% Hispanic (White) 2.5% Native American 49% White 4% Mixed Sexual Orientation Identity 81% straight 13% bi-sexual 6% lesbian/gay Demographics (n = 118)

  8. Foster Care Variables (n = 114) • Age at most recent Removal • Mean = 15.47 • Range = 2.04 - 17.96 • Std Dv = 2.59 • Number of lifetime foster care placements (total placements – runaway episodes – detention stays – juvenile corrections stays – post 18 placements = number of lifetime foster care placements) • Mean = 6.45 • Range = 1 - 31 • Std Dv = 4.82

  9. Non-Foster Care Placements while in Foster Care (n = 114) • 32% (37) ran away while in foster care at least once. • Range = 1 - 7 runaway episodes • 24.5% (28) were placed in detention or corrections while in foster care at least once • Range = 1 - 9 detention/corrections episodes

  10. Education (n = 118) • Currently in School • 50% yes • 50% no • Highest Educational Achievement • 32.5% no educational certificates/diplomas • 47% of whom are not currently in school • 2.5% Vocational Certificate • 20% GED Certificate • 43% High School Diploma • 2.5% Associates Degree

  11. Employment (n = 118) • Currently working • 44% Yes • 56% No • Monthly Work Income of those Working • 29.5% $500 or less • 31% $501 - $1000 • 35% $1001 - $2000 • 4% $2,000 or more

  12. Living Situation (n = 118) • 24% live with a significant other • Including 7% living with sig other’s family • 18% live alone • 14% live with friends/roommates • 12% live with extended family • Including 2% living with a sig other at extended family’s home • 11% live with foster parents

  13. Homelessness (n = 118) • 27% (32) have been homeless since turning 18 • 7 of those had experienced a homeless episode for 7 months or longer • 7% were homeless at time of interview

  14. Proportion Receiving Post 18 CPS Case Management Services • Total Eligible for Post 18 Services (turned 18 bt 7/1/05 & 6/30/08) = 1919 • Total on 18 + Voluntary Agreement as of 10/1/07 = 565 • Proportion eligible receiving CPS case management services = 29% • Not included in this percentage are those YAs receiving ETV only or those receiving re-entry case management services through a contract agency

  15. Independent Living Subsidy (n = 118) • 44% currently receiving subsidy • 56% not receiving subsidy • 27% of whom had received subsidy in the past but no longer receiving it • 12% of whom had never been told about subsidy or didn’t know they were eligible to receive it

  16. Reason Subsidy Stopped (n=18) • 11% (2) no longer wanted to be involved with CPS • 50% (9) CPS stopped it due to non- compliance • 6% (1) combination of the above • 33% (6) had turned 21

  17. Reason Subsidy never Received (n=39) • 17% (7) no longer wanted to be involved with CPS • 58.5% (24) CPS wouldn’t authorize it due to non-compliance • 12% (5) waiting to get it • 5% (2) provider still receiving IV-E foster care funds • 2% (1) receiving other federal funds

  18. Health Insurance (n = 118) • 85% (98) have health insurance • 96% (89) have public insurance (AHCCCS) • 4% (4) have private insurance • 15% (17) do not have health insurance

  19. Substance Use • Current Use • 18% (20) got drunk in past 30 days • 14% (16) used drugs (illicit, inhalants, prescription with intent to get high, over-the-counter with intent to get high) in past 30 days • Past Abuse • 39% (46) used drugs or got drunk in the past, 2-3 times a month or more • 35%(39) used drugs in the past, twice a week or more

  20. Sexual Behaviors • 89% (97) ever had consensual sexual intercourse • Age of first time • 23% 13 or younger • 42% 14 – 15 • 21% 16- 17 • 13% 18

  21. Number of lifetime partners 20% 1 18% 2-3 21% 4-5 14% 6-8 9.5% 9-11 18% 12 or more Number of partners in past 3 months 23.5% 0 63% 1 5% 2 8% 3 or more (5 max) Number Sexual Partners

  22. Condom use 45% never 8% less than half the time 9.5% about half the time 11% more than half the time 27% every time Birth Control Use 56% never 3% less than half the time 3% about half the time 9% more than half the time 30% every time Intercourse in Past 3 Months

  23. Pregnancy (n = 111) • 38% (42) females experienced a pregnancy • 6% (7) males responsible for pregnancy • 55.5% never pregnant or responsible for a pregnancy

  24. Female Pregnancies (n=42) • Age of first pregnancy • 14% (6) 13 or younger • 19% (8) 14-15 • 36% (15) 16-17 • 31% (13) 18 or older

  25. Female Pregnancies (n=42) • 15 of the 42 who had ever been pregnant were currently pregnant • 18% of the total 85 females were currently pregnant • Total Number of Pregnancies • 62% 1 • 19% 2 • 19% 3 or more

  26. Live Births 48% did not or have not yet given birth 31% (13) have given birth to 1 child 19% (8) have given birth to 2 children 2% (1) has given birth to 3 children Children 30 children have been born to 22 YAFC mothers. 25 of the children live with their mothers Children of Females who had everbeen Pregnant (n = 42)

  27. Trauma History (n =118) • 49% (54) were neglected by a parent or guardian in that they were not provided with necessary food, shelter, or medical care • 54.5% (60) were physically abused by a parent or guardian • 27% (29) were sexually abused by a parent or guardian or someone who lived in the home • 16% (16) were physically abused by a foster care provider • 2% (2) were sexually abused by a foster care provider

  28. Trauma History • 68.5% (76) had a parent who abused drugs or alcohol • 62% (69) lived in a home with domestic violence • 59% (65) lived in a home where there was not enough money to meet the family’s basic needs • 66% (71) had a parent who was incarcerated at some point during their lifetime

  29. Trauma History • 31.5% (35) were sexually assaulted by someone other than a parent or guardian or someone who lived in their home before they turned 18. • 22% (24) experienced domestic violence in a relationship before they turned 18. • 12% (13) experienced domestic violence in a relationship since turning 18 • 7% (7) had been sexually assaulted since turning 18

  30. Emotional-Social Well-Being • CES-D (depression) mean sum score = 15.22 • Population mean sum score = 7.94 – 9.25 • SERS-A (self-esteem & self-concept) mean sum score = 36.38 • Population mean sum score = 37.27 • NOS (orientation toward social supports) mean average score (1-4)= 2.72 • Population mean average score = 3.1

  31. Connected Relationships in Last Placement (n = 110) • 50% (55) felt that while in their last placement there was always at least one person who understood them and who they could trust.

  32. Primary Person with Whom YAs Connected (n = 36) • 28% (10) friend • 25% (9) foster parent • 17% (6) significant other (boyfriend/girlfriend) • 17% (6) extended family or sibling • 14% (5) group home staff person

  33. Those who Felt they had too little Contact with… • Siblings 62% • Extended family 58% • Parents 54% • Friends 46% • Boy/girlfriends 40.5%

  34. Contact Information • For more information, contact Tonia Tonia Stott School of Social Work Arizona State University 602-496-0081 tonia.stott@asu.edu