design and implementation of a simple totally ordered reliable multicast protocol in java
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Design and Implementation of a Simple Totally-Ordered Reliable Multicast Protocol in Java. Introduction. Computer networks allow geographically distributed processes to collaborate or share a common stream of information.

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design and implementation of a simple totally ordered reliable multicast protocol in java
Design and Implementation of a Simple Totally-Ordered Reliable Multicast Protocol in Java
background
Computer networks allow geographically distributed processes to collaborate or share a common stream of information.

Major characteristic of group communication applications is one source sends data to multiple receivers.

Multicast is well-suited for the distributed applications that focus on group activities, compared with unicast and broadcast.

Background
multicast
Multicast aims to deliver data to a select group of hosts. A single packet is addressed to all intended hosts and the network replicates packets only as needed.

IP Multicast is an internet protocol that enables transmission of data to a group of receivers.

IP Multicast is unreliable.

Multicast
totally ordered reliable multicast
Totally-ordered Reliable Multicast
  • Reliability
    • guarantees data eventually delivered to non-faulty receivers.
  • Total Ordering
    • all receivers observe the same order of reception of messages.
slide6
Easy to build networking applications.

Portable to any systems.

Object oriented - clearer structure, supports reuse.

Java
basic concepts 1
Basic Concepts(1)
  • session
    • a collaborative group, includes a collection of processes.
    • members cooperate to fulfill a common goal or share a common stream of information.
  • channel
    • the communication pipe for session members.
    • encapsulates the transmission protocol to session members.
basic concepts 2
Basic Concepts(2)
  • session name server
    • a program running at a well-known address.
    • maintains a list of the current sessions along with session member information.
  • default channel
    • a special channel, created for each session when the session is created.
    • the services of a session are implemented through the default channel.
user level api
User-level API
  • Session()

int join(String name, int netmask)

int leave()

int query(Session_Info si)

  • Channel()

int join(Session s, String cname)

int send(int sid, byte[] buffer)

int receive(int sid, byte[] buffer)

int leave()

sample testing program
Sample Testing Program

import TRMP.*;

import java.lang.*;

public class Test implements Constants{

public static void main(String[] args){

Session s = new Session();

long netmask = Long.parseLong(args[0], 16);

s.join(“s1”, netmask);

Channel ch = new Channel();

ch.join(s, “c1”);

String str = “Hello.";

byte[] bytes = str.getBytes();

ch.send(ALL,bytes);

ch.leave();

s.leave();

}

} * Appendix A

design considerations
Design Considerations
  • Reliability
  • Ordering
  • Flow Control
reliability sender
Reliability (sender)
  • (hybrid) sender-initiated approach.
  • sender maintains status of all receivers.
  • timers used for detecting ACK losses.
reliability sender1
Reliability (sender)

sender

receiver

ACK

ACK

timeout

reliability receiver
Reliability (receiver)
  • sends ACKs.
  • detects out of ordered packets, and sends NAK when discontinued packet sequence number is detected.
  • timers applied for the loss of NAKs.
  • suppress ACKs for fragmented packets.
reliability receiver1
Reliability (receiver)

sender

receiver

NAK

ordering
Ordering
  • a centralized scheme, one process sequences all the messages in a group.
  • TCP tunneling and multicasting locally.
  • large messages fragmented before multicasting and reassembled by receivers.
slide18
LAN 3

LAN 1

TCP

multicast

TCP

multicast

LAN 2

multicast

flow control
Flow Control
  • sliding window mechanism.
  • fixed window size for simplicity.
  • bounds buffers.
additional concepts 1
Additional Concepts(1)
  • Session owner
    • the oldest member in a session
    • grants session membership and sequences the membership messages sent in the default channel.
  • Membership database
    • kept on each session member.
    • contains current session and channel information.
  • Membership messages
    • contain session and channel membership updates.
additional concepts 2
Additional Concepts(2)
  • Channel leader
    • the oldest channel member in a channel.
    • sequence the messages transmitted in the channel.
  • Multicaster
    • the oldest channel member in one subnet of the channel.
    • multicast the messages within its subnet.
session name server
Session Name Server
  • Session information is provided to processes when they join a session.
  • SNS accepts four types of messages.
    • joining session request.
    • leaving session request
    • terminating session request.
    • querying sessions request.
the default channel
The Default Channel
  • automatically joins when a process joins a session.
  • contains all the session members.
  • transmits the membership messages.
  • session owner sequences the membership messages.
  • supports reliable point to point message (TCP) as well as multicasting.
example configuration of a session with two channels
Example Configuration of a Session with Two Channels

channel 1

channel 2

LAN 1

default channel

LAN 2

SNS

LAN 4

LAN 3

session
Session
  • session and channel membership database created locally when a process joins a session.
  • members update the membership database whenever they receive join and leave session, join and leave channel, and crash (leave) messages.
  • provides the same views of the session and channels states to all the session members.
channel
Channel
  • provide totally-ordered reliable multicast message delivery to channel members by TCP tunneling and local multicasting.
  • multiple channels may exist simultaneously in one session.
  • one session member may join more than one channel at a time.
  • members of a channel divided into subnet groups according to their subnet address.
slide29
LAN 3

LAN 1

data source

channel leader

TCP

TCP

multicast

multicaster

TCP

multicaster

multicast

LAN 2

multicast

threads synchronization
Threads Synchronization
  • In Java, each object has a monitor associated with it. No two threads can acquire an object's monitor at the same time. Multiple threads can synchronize access to an object with each other through the use of wait()/notify() calls.
  • Multithread synchronization is heavily used in the implementation.
multithread synchronization
Multithread Synchronization

public synchronized void handleNackEvent() {

while (true)

{

if ( mcrt.lostMsgs.size() == 0) wait();

//mcrt.lostMsgs is the lost message queue

...

}

public synchronized void requestResend(int seq) {

// add new element to the list with associated information

...

if ( mcrt.lostMsgs.size() == 1 ) notify();

}

multithread synchronization1
Multithread Synchronization

MCReceiveThread

NackThread

NackThread()

handleNackEvent()

initialization

requestResend()

detect message lost

acquire lock

update lost queue

ask for resend to the multicaster

notify()

cancelResend()

receive resent message

update lost queue

lost message queue is empty

release lock

wait()

functions tested
Functions Tested
  • session name server support.
  • join and leave session, channels.
  • ordering.
  • reliability.
  • failure handling (message loss, host crash).
  • performance.
testing environment
Testing Environment

session s1

SNS

labss3a

labss3d

labss4a

labss4d

compute

LAN1

paladin

jet

LAN2

muck

LAN3

channel c1

Channel c2

performance test
Performance Test

Purpose:

To compare TRMP latency with TCP (base line).

Result:

TRMP has lower latency for more than 12 receivers.

summary
Summary
  • We have designed and implemented a totally-ordered reliable multicast protocol (TRMP) in Java.
  • Simple test applications are implemented to test the functions and the performance of the protocol. The test results show that the protocol can provide totally-ordered reliable multicast with reasonable speed.
  • The TRMP package contains 38 classes and 4,661 lines of Java code.
related work
Related Work
  • Group Communication Support for Distributed Collaboration System (CCTL).
  • A Reliable Multicast Framework for Light-Weight Sessions and Application Level Framing (SRM).
  • Reliable Multicasting of Continuous Data Streams (RMTP).
  • The Java Reliable Multicast Service: A Reliable Multicast Library(JRMS).
future work
Future Work
  • flexible window size
  • different types of quality of service
  • NAK and re-transmission suppression
  • performance
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