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Regulation. Chapter 9- Regulation. Regulation: The coordination and control of the life activities. The internal environment must remain stable  Homeostasis . Nervous and Endocrine systems. Stimulus: Any change in the internal or external environment that causes a response. Response:

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chapter 9 regulation
Chapter 9- Regulation
  • Regulation:
    • The coordination and control of the life activities.
    • The internal environment must remain stableHomeostasis.
nervous and endocrine systems
Nervous and Endocrine systems
  • Stimulus:
    • Any change in the internal or external environment that causes a response.
  • Response:
    • Reaction to a stimulus.
  • Receptors:
    • Structures that are specialized to receive certain stimuli. Ex. Five senses.


    • An electrochemical charge generated along a neuron. The message!
  • Effectors:
    • Parts of the body that respond. Ex. Muscles or glands.
the neuron
The Neuron:
  • Aka nerve cell- receives and transmits impulses.
  • Composed of:
    • Dendrites
      • Detect stimulus
      • Cell branches
      • Receives impulses
    • Cyton
      • Cell body that contains the nucleus
    • Axon
      • Branch of the cell that transmits impulses away from the cyton.
    • Terminal branches
      • End of the axon
      • Secretes neurotransmitters (made by synaptic knobs)


    • Gap (space) between neurons
    • Neurotransmitters:
    • Chemicals secreted into the synapse by terminal branches.
    • Helps impulses jump the synapse.
    • Example acetylcholine, norepinephrine
types of neurons pathway is always sensory inter motor
Types of Neurons: Pathway is always sensory ->inter->motor
  • Sensory neuron:
    • Carries impulse from receptors (5 senses) to brain and spinal cord (CNS).
  • Interneuron:
    • Neuron found between sensory and motor neurons.
    • Located in brain and spinal cord.
  • Motor neurons:
    • Carries impulse away from brain and spinal cord (CNS) to the effectors (muscles or glands).
the central nervous system
The Central Nervous System
  • made up of the brain and spinal cord
  • Interneurons here
the brain
The Brain:
  • Composed of millions of neurons
    • 3 divisions
  • cerebrum:
      • largest part of the brain
      • area where sensory impulses are interpreted
      • memory, thinking, and reasoning


    • Balance and motor coordination
  • medulla:
    • connects spinal cord to the brain.
    • Controls involuntary activity: breathing, heart beat, digestion
the spinal cord
The Spinal Cord:
  • Thick nerve located within the vertebrae.
  • Protected by: vertebrae, meninges, cerebrospinal fluid.
  • Connects directly with the base of the brain.
  • Function: center for the reflex action
    • Reflexes: simple, involuntary, inborn patterns of behavior.
    • Reflex arc: pathway over which impulses travel.
  • Stimulus receptorsensory neuroninterneuronmotor neuroneffectors (RSIME!!)
the peripheral nervous system pns
The peripheral nervous system (PNS)
  • Nerves outside CNS
  • Carry impulses to other parts of the body.
  • Breaks into somatic and autonomic
    • Somatic – voluntary activities Ex: batting a ball
    • Autonomic – involuntary activities Ex: breathing
malfunctions of the nervous system
Malfunctions of the Nervous System
  • Cerebral Palsy
  • May occur before/during /after birth.
  • Damage to the motor areas of the brain.
  • Difficulty in coordinating voluntary muscle
  • Meningitis
  • Inflammation of the meninges. It can be viral or bacterial.


  • Supply of blood to the brain is cut off. A clot or a hemorrhage can form.
  • Brain damage and paralysis occurs.
  • Polio
  • Viral disease of the CNS. Results in paralysis.**Immunization- Salk and Sabin vaccine