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总部经济与总部统计探讨 A Tentative Exploration into the Headquarters Economy and Headquarter Statistics 北京市人民政府专家顾问团顾问 Adviser of People's Government of Beijing 北京市社会科学院中国总部经济研究中心主任 Director of China Center for Headquarters Economy Research, Beijing Academy of Social Sciences

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总部经济与总部统计探讨

A Tentative Exploration into the Headquarters Economy and Headquarter Statistics

北京市人民政府专家顾问团顾问

Adviser of People's Government of Beijing

北京市社会科学院中国总部经济研究中心主任

Director of China Center for Headquarters Economy Research, Beijing Academy of Social Sciences

赵 弘 研究员Professor Zhao Hong

2008年10月20日


Main contents
主要内容Main Contents

  • 一、发展总部经济具有重要战略价值

  • Developing headquarters economy has important strategic value

  • 二、北京总部经济发展走在全国前列

  • Beijing is in the head of headquarters economy in China

  • 三、北京市应率先探索建立总部经济统计体系

  • Beijing should try to establish the statistics system of headquarters economy


一、发展总部经济具有重要战略价值Ⅰ.Developing headquarters economy has important strategic value


(一)总部经济内涵

  • 总部经济是指某区域由于特有的优势资源吸引企业总部集群布局,形成总部集聚效应,并通过“总部-制造基地”功能链条辐射带动生产制造基地所在区域发展,由此实现不同区域分工协作、资源优化配置的一种经济形态

  • Headquarters economy can be defined as an economic modality with coordinated regional cooperation and optimized resource collocation which is created by some certain specific advantageous regional resources that attract a whole congregation of enterprise headquarter business, forming up what is called “headquarter convergence effect”, which, with its “headquarter- manufacturing base” functional chain radiating further ahead and thus driving up the regional development.



2 headquarters economy achieves win win win

Industry development总部经济概念由研究制造业而提出,但是总部经济理论不仅适用于制造业,也适用于服务业等其他行业

To promote employment

Tax increase

To improve infrastructure

Revenue contribution

Industry multiplier

Consumer driven

Employment multiplier

Social capital

The development

of the cities where

headquarters

located

The development

of production base

where headquarters

located

“win-win-win”

Enterprise development

  • Obtaining strategy resources with low cost

  • Enhancing technological innovation capability

  • Obtaining convenient productive services

  • Enhancing brand value

  • Realizing innovation of concept and culture

(二)总部经济实现“三赢”发展2.Headquarters economy achieves“win-win-win”


蓝星集团总部经济概念由研究制造业而提出,但是总部经济理论不仅适用于制造业,也适用于服务业等其他行业

  • 总部1996年从兰州迁入北京,资产5亿元,2005年集团资产达到300亿元,销售额300亿元,10年扩张60倍

  • 蓝星控股“蓝星清洗”、“星新材料”、“沈阳化工”3家上市公司,在国内拥有25个工厂和4个科研机构。在海外拥有15个工厂,7个研发和技术服务机构,营销网络遍及全球140多个国家

  • 蓝星集团不仅对北京经济发展作出了贡献,而且带动了位于全国各地的生产制造基地所在区域的发展

The headquarter of BlueStar Co.

removed from Lanzhou to Beijing in 1996 . The asset and sale of the company arrived at 30 billion RMB in 2005, expanding 60 times in ten years.


(三)发展总部经济在我国现阶段具有重要战略价值(三)发展总部经济在我国现阶段具有重要战略价值Developing headquarters economy has important strategic value at the current stagein China1. 总部经济提升我国在全球价值链中支配权Headquarters economy upgrades China’s due dominance in the global industrial system

  • 近年来我国经济实力不断增强,全球竞争力不断提升

  • In recent years, china’s economic strength continue to strengthen, and global competitiveness continue to upgrade.

  • 目前我国有210多种产品产量居世界第一

  • 2007年底世界经济论坛(World Economic Forum)发布的《2007-2008年度全球竞争力报告》显示,我国全球竞争力排名由2006年的第54位上升至2007年的34位


  • 但总体来看仍然处于全球价值链和产业链低端(三)发展总部经济在我国现阶段具有重要战略价值

  • On the whole ,still in the low-end of global value chain and the industrial chain.

    • 发达国家拥有世界86%的研发投入、90%以上的发明专利

    • 80 percent of the R&D invest and more than 90 percent of the patents for invention belong to developed countries.

    • 珠三角:“两头在外,中间在内”,大部分中小企业主要从事加工、组装、装配等附加值较低的OEM业务

  • 耐克全球1000多个签约工厂,中国有128家授权生产商。一双售价300美元的耐克鞋,中国的出厂价格为10美元

  • Nike has more than 1000 factories in the world, and 128 of them are in China. The selling price of a pair of Nike shoes is 300 dollars, but its manufacturer's price is only 10 dollars.



2 headquarters economy drives the economic transformation of the central cities
2. 粗放式经济增长方式(廉价劳动力、消耗大量能源、牺牲生态环境)已走到尽头,唯有转变经济发展方式,才能改变我国在世界经济体系分工中的地位,实现可持续发展总部经济助推中心城市经济转型Headquarters economy drives the economic transformation of the central cities

工业化背景下的城市化,工业化的进程早于城市化,许多城市尤其是中心城市面临经济转型的巨大压力

Many Chinese cities, particularly the central cities, are presently faced with enormous pressure arising from their economc transformations.

压力一:资源环境压力制约城市可持续发展Firstly: The pressure on resources and environmental constraints the urban sustainable development


我国人均资源相当于世界平均水平的比重粗放式经济增长方式(廉价劳动力、消耗大量能源、牺牲生态环境)已走到尽头,唯有转变经济发展方式,才能改变我国在世界经济体系分工中的地位,实现可持续发展

The ratio between China's per capita resources and the world average


单位:元粗放式经济增长方式(廉价劳动力、消耗大量能源、牺牲生态环境)已走到尽头,唯有转变经济发展方式,才能改变我国在世界经济体系分工中的地位,实现可持续发展

四直辖市制造业工人平均工资变化图

压力二:制造业“空心化” 对城市经济持续发展提出新挑战

Secondly: Manufacturing “hollowing” points out a new challenge to the sustainable development of urban economy.

  • 许多大城市土地价格飙升、人工成本上升、环境压力加大等,迫使企业将生产制造环节从大城市迁到中小城市、欠发达地区,大城市制造业“空心化”现象严重

  • The rising of land price rapidly, the rising of labor cost, the increasing of Environmental pressure in big cities, force manufacturing links move to small and medium-sized cities, under developed areas from big cities. “hollowing out” of big city’s Manufacturing is serious.

  • 原有工业布局随着城市规模快速扩张,已经不适合在中心城区发展,产业发展需要从二产向三产转型升级

  • With the rapid expanding of Urban scale, The original layout of the industry doesn’t suit for the development in the central urban area, the industry need upgrade from the secondary industry to Tertiary industry.


压力三:城市面临日益严重的空间资源约束,如何提高单位空间的经济产出是经济发展面临的重要课题压力三:城市面临日益严重的空间资源约束,如何提高单位空间的经济产出是经济发展面临的重要课题Lastly: the city suffer from space constraints seriously. How to improve the space unit’s Economic output is an important subject of Economic development.

  • 第二产业处于低端环节,第三产业低级化,以商贸、餐饮、房地产等行业为主

通过发展企业总部和研发、营销等价值链高端环节,带动现代服务业发展,提高单位空间的产出效率,推动城市产业升级和功能提升

Through developing the value chain’s high-end segments, such as Corporate headquarters, research and development, marketing, to promote the development of modern service industry, achieve urban Industrial upgrading and functional promotion.


3 headquarters economy promotes regional economics coordinated development
3. 压力三:城市面临日益严重的空间资源约束,如何提高单位空间的经济产出是经济发展面临的重要课题总部经济推动区域经济协调发展headquarters economy promotes regional economics coordinated development

  • 改革开放三十年来,我国总体得到快速发展,但区域间差距(沿海和内陆差距、大城市与中小城市差距等)仍较大

  • For the past 30 odd years since the reform and opening up to the outside world, and along with an overall economic development, China has also seen an ever-increasing phenomenon of uneven development among different regions.

  • GDP:2007年东部GDP比中西部GDP之和高6.21万亿(下图)

  • GDP: In 2007, the GDP of East China is 6.21 trillion yuan RMB more than West China and Middle China.


6.21压力三:城市面临日益严重的空间资源约束,如何提高单位空间的经济产出是经济发展面临的重要课题

1.82

4.62

我国东部与中西部GDP合计比较(单位:万亿)

The GDP comparative between the east and west of China(tril.)

  • 人均GDP: 2007年我国东部地区为29703元/人,中部地区约为东部的51%,西部约为东部的44%

  • GDP per capita: In 2007, the GDP per capita of East China is 29703 yuan RMB. The GDP per capita of Middle China is about 51% of that of East China ,and the GDP per capita of West China is about 44% of that of East China.


总部经济模式压力三:城市面临日益严重的空间资源约束,如何提高单位空间的经济产出是经济发展面临的重要课题

功能合作、功能配套

大城市与中小城市

发达地区与欠发达地区

拓展升级

制造业空心化

大城市与中小城市的产品配套逐步削弱

原有工业经济

产品配套、零部件配套

城市之间、区域之间

  • 区域发展不平衡如何解决,必须寻求在市场经济条件下的区域合作,基于区域间的区位优势、资源差异来实现

  • 总部经济以企业为载体,以市场为机制,以资源差异为条件,实现大城市与中小城市、发达地区与欠发达地区之间由原来的产品合作、产品配套向功能合作、功能配套拓展升级,达到区域经济统筹发展和区域共赢的目的


Mode of Headquarters Economy压力三:城市面临日益严重的空间资源约束,如何提高单位空间的经济产出是经济发展面临的重要课题

Function cooperation and function matching

Big cities and the small and medium-sized cities

The developed regions and the developing regions

Expanding and upgrading

Manufacturing Hollowing

Product matching is tampering in big, small and medium-sized cities

The existing industry economy

Product matching and parts matching

Between cities and between regions


现阶段我国发展总部经济条件渐趋成熟压力三:城市面临日益严重的空间资源约束,如何提高单位空间的经济产出是经济发展面临的重要课题Conditions for the headquarters economic development of China in the present stage are by and large ripe

  • 条件一:网络将世界联为一体,信息技术和通讯手段的飞速发展与广泛应用,使总部与制造基地等能够以很低的成本保持及时、通畅的信息沟通

  • The first condition: The network together the world as one, the rapid development and extensive application of information technology and means of communication ,it makes the headquarters and manufacturing base maintain information communication timely and openly by low cost.


  • 条件二:压力三:城市面临日益严重的空间资源约束,如何提高单位空间的经济产出是经济发展面临的重要课题一批城市已经率先发展起来,特别是一些中心城市已经具备了吸引高端人才的条件,具有发展总部经济的能力

  • The second condition: The first group of cities has been developed,

    particularly a lot of central cities have the ability to assume developing the headquarters economic and enhancing the global power.

    • 根据中国社科院发布的《2007/2008年全球城市竞争力报告》,中国共有59座城市入选全球城市500强,其中上海排名第41、深圳排名第64、北京排名第66;跨国公司落户指数前10名中,北京、上海分列第9、10位

    • According to ‘Global Urban Competitiveness Report 2007/2008’, 59 Chinese cities were selected as the world's top 500 cities, and Shanghai ranked 41st, Shenzhen ranked 64th, Beijing ranked 66th.


  • 条件三:压力三:城市面临日益严重的空间资源约束,如何提高单位空间的经济产出是经济发展面临的重要课题一批企业成为发展总部经济的主体,推动我国总部经济向更高阶段发展

  • The last condition: A number of enterprises become the mainstay of headquarters economy, to promote China's headquarters economy to a higher stage of development

    • 2008年中国大陆25家企业入选《财富》世界500强,其中北京21家,上海2家,广州1家,长春1家

    • 2008年中国企业500强整体实力明显提高,中石油化工集团、国家电网公司、中国石油天然气集团3家企业的营业收入突破了万亿元人民币,有46家企业达到了千亿元

    • 截至2007年底,中国近7000家境内投资主体在全球173个国家和地区设立对外直接投资企业超过1万家,2007年中国对外直接投资净额为265.1亿美元,是2002年的10.6倍


二、北京市总部经济发展走在全国前列压力三:城市面临日益严重的空间资源约束,如何提高单位空间的经济产出是经济发展面临的重要课题Ⅱ.The Beijing Municipality possesses a front row position with its pioneering headquarters economy development in the whole country


The situation of headquarters economy development in beijing
(一)北京总部经济发展总体情况压力三:城市面临日益严重的空间资源约束,如何提高单位空间的经济产出是经济发展面临的重要课题The situation of headquarters economy development in Beijing

  • 北京总部经济发展能力连续4年全国排名第一

  • 以跨国公司地区总部为代表的国际总部资源是北京总部经济发展的重要力量

  • Regional headquarters of transnational companies and other international headquarter resources are an important driving force for developing headquarters economy

    • 北京有各类跨国公司地区总部42家(其中经商务部认定的有20家)

    • There are 42 transnational companies of various types headquartered in Beijing

    • 北京有跨国公司地区总部性质的投资性公司153家,占全国投资性公司总数的50%以上,位居全国中心城市首位;外资研发中心达239家

    • There are 153 investment companies with the transnational regional headquarter nature, making up over 50% of the total investment-natured companies in the whole country, which ranks Beijing with the top position in this respect. there are 239 foreign funded R&D centers stationed in Beijing.


  • 北京有大型中央企业集团160家,其中金融企业集团41家。2008年《财富》世界500强我国大陆25家企业入选,有21家总部设在北京

    There are 160 odd large central enterprises and groups presently stationed in Beijing, among which 41 are financial enterprises and groups.

  • 北京有非央属企业集团106家,包括本土成长起来的企业,如联想、方正等,以及从国内其他省市迁过来的企业集团,如经纬纺机、远大空调、蓝星集团等

    Beijing also has 106 odd non-central enterprise and groups, including localized enterprises and some migrated enterprises and groups from other provinces or cities in China.


Cbd beijing central business district

(二)北京总部经济空间分布以国内企业集团总部为代表的国内总部资源是北京总部经济发展的另一重要力量Spatial distribution of Beijing headquarters economy

北京商务中心区——CBDBeijing Central Business District

  • 2007年底,入驻CBD企业达4866家,其中世界500强企业130余家、跨国公司800余家;拥有经商务部或北京市认定的跨国公司地区总部20多家,外商投资公司88家

  • By the end of 2006, 4866 enterprises had stationed in CBD, amongst which 130 were ranked as being among the Top Fortune 500 enterprises. There were some 800 transnational companies stationed in CBD, of which 20 have already gained recognition from the Ministry of Commerce or from the Beijing Municipality. Also stationed in CBD are 88 foreign investment companies.

  • 2007年前10个月,CBD的3.99平方公里土地上,创造了45.1亿元的区级地税收入

  • The first ten months of 2007,the 3.99 ㎞2 land of CBD, absorbed 135,000 employees, created tax revenue 4.51 billion Yuan.


Financial street
金融街 以国内企业集团总部为代表的国内总部资源是北京总部经济发展的另一重要力量Financial Street

  • 国家金融监管机构——人民银行、银监会、证监会、保监会等

  • 全国性金融巨头——中国工商银行、中国银行、中国建设银行总部,110多家股份制银行、证券、保险公司总部和分支机构

  • 外资金融机构——瑞士银行、纽约银行、澳大利亚西太平洋银行等20多家

  • 国内大企业集团总部——中国电信、中国移动、中国联通、中国网通、中国电力等

  • There are some 1500 enterprises of various types already stationed in the Financial Street, of which there are 580 odd renowned enterprises and large group headquarters and 120 financial organizations.

  • 金融资产总额占全国金融资产总额的70%,控制着全国90%以上的信贷资金和65%的保费资金

  • The total financial property is evaluated to have reached 33 trillion Yuan, constituting 70% of the national total with 90% of the national credit capitals and 65% of insurance premiums under control. The daily flux of capitals has exceeded 10 billion Yuan.

  • 金融街占地仅1平方公里,2007年实现三级税收858.6亿元,,占北京市三级税收总额的1/5

  • Financial Street occupies only 1 km2,2007,the tax totaled 858.6 hundred million yuan, account for 1/5 of Beijing.


Haidian park of zhongguancun science park
中关村科技园区海淀园以国内企业集团总部为代表的国内总部资源是北京总部经济发展的另一重要力量Haidian Park of Zhongguancun Science Park

  • 形成了以IT产业为主的高技术产业企业总部及研发总部聚集区

  • It has formed a gathering area of high-tech corporate headquarters and R&D headquarters mainly based on IT industry.

  • 海淀园有跨国公司研发机构40多家,如IBM 、Intel、Microsoft等,国内企业研发机构70多家

  • At present, there are over 40 transnational R&D organizations such as IBM,Intel,Microsoft, etc alongside some 70 odd domestic enterprise-based R&D organizations.

  • 联想成为内地第一家进入全球500强的民营企业,新浪、搜狐、百度等一大批企业登陆国际资本市场

  • Lenovo became the first private enterprises to enter the world's top 500, Sina, Sohu, Baidu and so on, a large number of companies enter the international capital market


三、以国内企业集团总部为代表的国内总部资源是北京总部经济发展的另一重要力量北京市应率先探索建立总部经济统计体系Ⅲ.Beijing should make pioneering endeavors in establishing its headquarters economy statistic monitoring system


The development of headquarters economy puts forward new requirement to statistics
(一)总部经济发展对统计提出了新的需求以国内企业集团总部为代表的国内总部资源是北京总部经济发展的另一重要力量The development of headquarters economy puts forward new requirement to statistics

  • 现行统计指标体系中没有将总部型企业作为专门的类别进行统计

  • One is that enterprises adopting headquarters mode is not separated as an individual class in the current statistics index system.

    • 总部型企业的经营活动,在现有统计体系中并没有独立的、专门的清楚的标识,分散在各个行业中,总部经济对区域的经济社会贡献也就难以直观的反映出来

    • Because the operating activities of these headquarter-mode enterprises are separated around various kinds of industries and not marked out clearly in the current statistics system, their contributions to the economic and social development of the corresponding regions are hard to be reflected directly.


  • 现行统计体系中能够将部分总部型企业的经营活动提取出来,但难以涵盖全部范围现行统计体系中能够将部分总部型企业的经营活动提取出来,但难以涵盖全部范围

  • Another is that the current statistics system can extract only part of the operating activities of these headquarter-mode enterprises, but can’t contain the whole scope of the operating activities.

    • 现行统计体系中,“商务服务业”中“企业管理服务”,能反映出部分总部型企业的经营活动,主要是从事多元化经营且具有管理服务职能的企业集团总部对于子公司的管理服务活动,但并不能够全面覆盖总部型企业范围

    • In the current statistics system of our country, the index of “enterprise management service” can reflect part of the operating activities of headquarter-mode enterprises. headquarters that have single economic activity and enterprise headquarters as R&D headquarters hold the most big portion of headquarters economy. So it is necessary to count these kinds of headquarters into the headquarters economic statistic monitoring system.

      • 单一经济活动的企业总部,其经营活动指标分散在各自所在的行业类别中,而且往往与分支机构合并统计,在现有统计体系中没有独立提取出来

      • 研发型企业总部等部分职能型企业总部没有专门的统计


Some key points need to figure out in the exploration of headquarters economic statistics
(二)开展总部经济统计需要重点解决的问题现行统计体系中能够将部分总部型企业的经营活动提取出来,但难以涵盖全部范围Some key points need to figure out in the exploration of headquarters economic statistics

  • 设立总部型企业的判别标准

  • The judging standard of the scope of headquarter-mode enterprise.

    • 具有独立法人资格

    • 在企业组织结构中承担管理、研发、营销、投融资、采购等全部或部分职能

    • 对注册地以外的1家及以上的分支机构具有管理和控制权

  • 针对不同范围大小的区域,总部型企业的认定标准也应有所不同,比如对于一个国家来说,只有跨国公司总部才能纳入总部型企业范围;对于一个省来说,除跨国公司总部外,跨省域的企业集团总部也属于总部型企业

  • The judging standard of headquarter-mode enterprise should adjust to the scale of different kinds of regions.


  • 将总部型企业按规模划分为三个层次:跨国公司总部、全国性企业总部、省级企业总部将总部型企业按规模划分为三个层次:跨国公司总部、全国性企业总部、省级企业总部

  • We suggest that the definition of headquarter-mode enterprises should be composed of three levels according to the actual phase of our country’s headquarters economy as: headquarters of international company, headquarters of national company and headquarters of provincial company.

  • 将总部型企业的指标进行单独统计

  • To separate the data of headquarter-mode enterprises from the overall statistics data.

    • 单独设立企业总部统计报表,将企业总部自身的各种指标进行单独统计,以直观的描述、监测企业总部的发展状况


thanks!将总部型企业按规模划分为三个层次:跨国公司总部、全国性企业总部、省级企业总部

中国总部经济研究中心:www.zgzbjj.com

联系电话:010-58572829

China Center for Headquarters Economy Research

TEL:010-58572829


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