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Master ’ s vs. Ph.D.: Which one to choose? How far to go?. Kathleen Fisher, Tufts University Linda Apsley , Microsoft. Revisiting Choices. Given that you are at the end of your first year in either a Ph.D. or MS program, the questions are:

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Master’s vs. Ph.D.:Which one to choose?How far to go?

Kathleen Fisher, Tufts University

Linda Apsley, Microsoft


Revisiting Choices

Given that you are at the end of your first year in either a Ph.D. or MS program, the questions are:

  • Am I in the “right” program for me, based on a better understanding of

    • What I want (what I love / what I dislike) in the graduate school experience?

    • What I want as a future career path?

  • If not, then how do I get onto the “right” track?



Linda’s Story


Grad School Paths

Job industry / startup

Reapply

-based

MS course

MS thesis project

PhD

Switch

First year

Job lab /academia

coursework to dissertation


Experience of Course-Based Master’s Degree

  • Your educational goal: to acquire more knowledge (breadth & some depth) in the field via coursework.

  • Specialize in CSE courses more than in undergrad program

    • Select courses to match your interests (and, do well in your courses)

  • Short time to get what you need:

    • Job-hunting soon after starting the program

    • Cultivate & extend professional network

      • Reference letters? Future PhD advisers?


Experience of Research-Based Master’s Degree

  • Your educational goals:

    • To acquire depth and project skills via Master’s thesis under supervision of advisor

    • To get a taste of research (to decide about eventually pursuing PhD)

  • Research component is similar to Ph.D., but…

    • May be more “development” rather than innovative & deep independent research

    • May result in 0-1 published papers, rather than 3 or more

    • Choices (of adviser, project, etc.) have lower stakes: You’re committing to 1-2 years, rather than ~5.


Experience of Ph.D. Degree

I Research

  • Your educational goal:

    • To do original high-impact research

    • To learn the skills needed to be a contributing member of the research community

      • Technical, soft skills, and culture

  • Long process (4-6 years), multiple phases

    • Predictable challenges and stress points


Grad School Paths

Choose advisor

Qualifying exams

Thesis proposal

Submit papers

Write dissertation

Job hunt

-based

MS course

MS thesis project

PhD

First year

Job lab /academia

coursework to dissertation


Write & defend thesis

Experience of the Ph.D.

Pick advisor, move from coursework to research

Reviewer comments

First submission

Advisor stress

Pick a Topic

Quals

Job interviewinvitations

CRA-W Grad Cohort Workshop 2005


Lessons from the Roller Coaster

  • The ride is similar for most people

    You are qualified for the ride. It’s scary for everyone.

    You aren’t alone. Share your experiences.

  • It takes externally applied energy for the uphills

    Your advisor will be a key person (later session on this).

    Seek support from many sources (technical, emotional)

  • There are a lot of downhill sections

    Frustration & doubt are guaranteed. Things can go wrong.

  • Momentum is important

    Keep moving forward. No side trips to distract.


Setting Research Goals

  • You’re in the pilot seat

    • not yet sure of your destination

    • need a capable crew to help you fly

      • Network, mentors, friends.

  • PhD Research requires redefining success

    • Class performance is not as important as before

  • In research, nobody knows the answer!

    • And half the challenge is in asking good questions!


Career Paths

Developmentjobs in industry;Create a startup;

Project manager

Research in industry or government labs;

Project leadershipin industry;

Create a startup;

University research/ teaching

-based

MS course

MS thesis project

PhD

First year

coursework to dissertation


Career Opportunities withMaster’s Degree

Types of jobs you can do in industry with a Master’s

  • Operations

    • Consulting

    • Install and administer software

    • Technical support/troubleshooting

    • Web site management

  • Product or application development

    • Design, code and/or test new software

    • User interface design, human factors analysis and test

    • Write technical documentation

    • Program or product management, marketing

    • Project management

  • Research support (very similar to product development)

    • Contribute to prototyping new software ideas and to publications


Types of Employers of Master’s Degree Holders

  • Information Technology (IT) companies

    • Software or hardware or services companies

    • Start-ups

    • Spectrum of established companies (small to big)

  • Companies in other industries

    • Banking, insurance, telecommunications, healthcare, environmental engineering, manufacturing, travel, …

    • EVERY industry needs software engineers today

  • Universities

    • Typically in support roles


Course vs. Research Master’s

Course Master’s

  • Breadth of knowledge may qualify you for marketing, project management, product management roles

    • But if that’s what you want, take some business classes!

  • Lack of major project may be a handicap for development roles

Research Master’s

  • Deep project may qualify you for more interesting development roles

  • Potentially channeled more into development

  • Much more attractive for a research lab position

    • Thesis will help with publications


Career Ladders in Industry

Technical

  • Entry level: implement parts of products designed by others

  • Mid-level: lead design of product components

  • Senior: lead product design and implementation

Management

  • 1st line: Direct single project/component to successful conclusion

  • Mid-level: oversee several related projects

  • Executive: oversee product and corporate strategy



Career Opportunities with Ph.D. Degree

I Research &Teaching (?)

  • Research or advanceddevelopment in industrialresearch labs

  • Development leadership roles in industry

  • Technical project management / leadership

  • Academic research and teaching in a university as a professor


Industry Career: Research and Industry Impact

  • Research

    • Engage in scientific discovery, collaborate with peers, fund research (but typically later in career, possibly internal funding)

    • May involve university faculty and students

    • Develop creative thinking around technical solutions to problems

  • Technology Transfer

    • Contribute to company’s products, client engagements, open source…

    • Demonstrate strong problem-solving skills

    • Publish work and engage with academia

  • Service

    • Departmental (hiring committee, e.g)

    • Company-wide (promotion review board)

    • Professional

Expected to do all three well!


What can I do now to prepare for a job in industry?

  • Complete a project(s)

    • Will make you a more interesting candidate

  • Get an internship(s)

    • Try out a corporate culture, job type, industry

    • Experience counts a lot!

  • Acquire key skills

    • Building your professional network, communication, negotiation, making yourself visible

  • Find a mentor(s)

    • Provides a useful perspective


Finding Industry Jobs

  • Identify organizations of interest and do internships – real world and specific organization experience is valued

  • Know what positions are within your scope and focus on the right type of position for you

  • Plug into on-campus recruiting at your school

  • Apply through formal methods, but try to make contact with people who will get your resume into the right hands

  • Conferences, conferences, conferences – employers attend conferences specifically to find you

  • Network with friends, colleagues, and friends of friends to make contacts and get a foot in the door

  • Consider startup organizations – higher risk, but greater potential for increasing the scope of your responsibilities

  • Demonstrate good communication skills in addition to technical savvy

  • Ask for what you want!


Academic Career:Research, Teaching and Service

  • Research

    • engage in scientific discovery, involve graduate and undergraduate students, fund research

  • Teaching

    • active teaching, mentoring, advising

  • Service

    • Departmental

    • University

    • Professional

Expected to do all three well!


Different Types of Colleges

  • Research universities: Ph.D. program - emphasize research– but teaching, service important

  • Colleges/universities: M.S. program- emphasize teaching – but research & service also important

  • Selective liberal arts colleges:B.S. program – emphasize teaching with research a close second, but service important

  • Teaching-oriented colleges: B.S. program – emphasize teaching & service but research can be expected


Academic Career Ladder

Professorial Ranks

  • Assistant

  • Associate

  • Full

  • Chaired Professor – endowed

    Administrative Ranks

    Department Chair, Dean, Provost, President

    Instructor – teaching & service

    Postdoctoral positions - research


What can I do now to prepare for an academic job?

  • Research

    • Apprenticeship: learn from adviser, doing it, and others

    • How do ideas come?

    • How to organize research?

  • Teaching

    • Teaching experience, teach some even if don’t have to

  • Service

    • Organizing student organizations/support groups – Women in CS

    • Working on department committees

    • Volunteering at conferences


Moving Between Research Lab and Academia

From University to Industry

  • Must build real systems

  • Establish visibility and knowledge in industry

From Industry to University

  • Must continue publishing

  • Establish visibility in research community


Thank you!Questions?


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