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1920's, The Great Depression and the New Deal. The Second Industrial Revolution. Innovation U.S. develops the highest standard of living in the world The twenties and the second revolution electricity replaces steam modern assembly introduced

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the second industrial revolution
The Second Industrial Revolution
  • Innovation
  • U.S. develops the highest standard of living in the world
  • The twenties and the second revolution
    • electricity replaces steam
    • modern assembly introduced
  • Airplanes – Charles Lindbergh – first solo flight over the Atlantic Ocean (1927)
socially transforming innovations
Socially transforming innovations
  • electricity
    • electric lightbulb (1880's – 1924 the Phoebus cartel)
  • automobile
    • mass production – assembly line
    • Fordism
  • radio
scientific advancements and conservatism
Scientific Advancements and Conservatism
  • The Scopes Trial (1925)
  • Eugenics – Immigration Act of 1924
the automobile industry
The Automobile Industry
  • Auto makers stimulate sales through model changes, advertising
  • Auto industry fosters other businesses
  • Autos encourage suburban sprawl
patterns of economic growth
Patterns of Economic Growth
  • Structural change
    • professional managers replace individual entrepreneurs
    • corporations become the dominant business form
  • Big business weakens regionalism, brings uniformity to America
economic weaknesses
Economic Weaknesses
  • Railroads poorly managed
  • Coal displaced by petroleum
  • Farmers face decline in exports, prices
  • Growing disparity between income of laborers, middle-class managers
  • Middle class speculates with idle money
city life in the jazz age
City Life in the Jazz Age
  • Rapid increase in urban population
  • Skyscrapers symbolize the new mass culture
  • Communities of home, church, and school are absent in the cities
women and the family
Women and the Family
  • Ongoing crusade for equal rights
  • “Flappers” seek individual freedom
  • Most women remain in domestic sphere
  • Discovery of adolescence
    • teenaged children no longer need to work
    • indulge their craving for excitement
the roaring twenties
The Roaring Twenties
  • Decade notable for obsessive interest in celebrities
  • Sex becomes an all-consuming topic of interest in popular entertainment
the flowering of the arts
The Flowering of the Arts
  • Alienation from 20s’ mass culture
  • "Exiled" American writers put U.S. in forefront of world literature
    • T.S. Eliot
    • Ernest Hemingway
    • F. Scott Fitzgerald
  • Harlem Renaissance--African Americans prominent in music, poetry
the rural counterattack
The Rural Counterattack
  • Rural Americans identify urban culture with Communism, crime, immorality
  • Progressives attempt to force reform on the American people
    • upsurge of bigotry
    • an era of repression
the fear of radicalism
The Fear of Radicalism
  • 1919-- “Red Scare”
    • illegal roundups of innocent people
    • forcible deportation of aliens
    • terrorism against “radicals,” immigrants
  • 1927-- Sacco and Vanzetti executed
  • 1918--18th Amendment ratified
  • 1920--Volstead Act prohibits production, sale, or transport of alcoholic beverages
  • Consumption of alcohol reduced
  • Prohibition resented in urban areas
  • Bootlegging becomes big business
  • 1933--18th amendment repealed
the ku klux klan
The Ku Klux Klan
  • 1925--Klan membership hits 5 million
  • Attack on urban culture, inhabitants
  • Defense of traditional rural values
  • Klan seeks to win U.S. by persuasion
  • Violence, internal corruption result in Klan’s virtual disappearance by 1930
immigration restriction
Immigration Restriction
  • 1924--Congress restricts all immigration
  • Preferential quotas to northern Europeans
  • Mexican immigrants exempt from quota
the fundamentalist challenge
The Fundamentalist Challenge
  • Fundamentalism: stress on traditional Protestant orthodoxy, biblical literalism
  • 1925--Scopes Trial discredits fundamentalism among intellectuals
  • “Modernists” gain mainline churches
  • Fundamentalists strengthen grassroots appeal in new churches
harding coolidge and hoover
Harding, Coolidge, and Hoover
  • Republican presidents appeal to traditional American values
  • Harding scandals break after his death
  • Coolidge represents America in his austerity and rectitude
  • Hoover represents the self-made man
the election of 1928
The Election of 1928
  • Democrat Al Smith carries urban vote
    • governor of New York
    • Roman Catholic
  • Republican Herbert Hoover wins race
    • Midwesterner
    • Protestant
  • Religion the campaign’s decisive issue
the great crash
The Great Crash
  • 1928--soaring stock prices attract individual, corporate investment
  • 1929--stock market crashes
    • directly affects 3 million
    • credit crunch stifles business
  • Businesses lay off workers
  • Demand for consumer goods declines
effects of the depression
Effects of the Depression
  • Hardship affects all classes
  • The middle class loses belief in ever-increasing prosperity
  • Thousands of young homeless, jobless
fighting the depression
Fighting the Depression
  • Republican attempts to overcome catastrophe flounder
  • Depression gives Democrats opportunity to regain power
hoover and voluntarism
Hoover and Voluntarism
  • Hoover initially seeks solution through voluntary action, private charity
  • Eventually aids farmers and bankers
  • Resists Democratic efforts to give direct aid to the unemployed
    • perceived as indifferent to human suffering
    • programs seen as incompetent
the emergence of roosevelt
The Emergence of Roosevelt
  • Franklin Roosevelt
    • born to wealth and privilege
    • 1921--crippled by polio
    • 1928--elected governor of New York
    • talented politician
  • 1932--defeats Hoover with farmer- worker-immigrant-Catholic coalition
the hundred days
The Hundred Days
  • Banking system saved from collapse
  • Fifteen major laws provide relief
  • New Deal aims to reform and restore, not nationalize, the economy
roosevelt and recovery
Roosevelt and Recovery
  • National Recovery Administration
    • industries formulate codes to eliminate cut-throat competition, ensure labor peace
    • codes favor big business, unenforceable
    • 1935--NRA ruled unconstitutional
  • Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933
    • farmers paid to take land out of cultivation
    • prices increase
    • sharecroppers, tenant farmers dispossessed
roosevelt and relief
Roosevelt and Relief
  • 1933--Harry Hopkins placed in charge of RFC to direct aid to unemployed
  • 1933--Civilian Conservation Corps provides employment to young people
  • 1935--Works Progress Administration place unemployed on federal payroll
  • Programs never sufficiently funded
roosevelt and reform
Roosevelt and Reform
  • 1933-34--focus on immediate problems
  • 1935--shift to permanent economic reform
challenges to fdr
Challenges to FDR
  • Father Charles Coughlin advocates nationalizing banks, anti-Semitism
  • Francis Townsend calls for wealth redistribution from young to the elderly
  • Huey Long calls for redistribution of wealth by seizing private fortunes
social security
Social Security
  • 1935--Social Security Act passed
  • Criticisms
    • too few people would collect pensions
    • unemployment package inadequate
  • Establishes pattern of government aid to poor, aged, handicapped
labor legislation
Labor Legislation
  • 1935--Wagner Act
    • allows unions to organize
    • outlaws unfair labor practices
  • 1938--Fair Labor Standard Act
    • maximum hour
    • minimum wage
impact of the new deal
Impact of the New Deal
  • Had a broad influence on the quality of life in the U.S. in the 1930s
  • Helps labor unions most
  • Helps women, minorities least
rise of organized labor
Rise of Organized Labor
  • 1932--National Recovery Act spurs union organizers
  • Congress of Industrial Organization (CIO) formed by John L. Lewis
  • CIO unionizes steel, auto industries
  • 1940--CIO membership hits 5 million, 28% of labor force unionized
the new deal record on help to minorities
The New Deal Record on Help to Minorities
  • Crop reduction program allows whites to fire or evict blacks, Hispanics
  • Public works programs help by providing employment
  • New Deal figures convince minorities that the government is on their side
  • 1934--Indian Reorganization Act gives American Indians greater control
women at work
Women at Work
  • Position of women deteriorates in ‘30s
    • jobs lost at a faster rate than men
    • hardly any New Deal programs help
  • Progress in government
    • Frances Perkins, Secretary of Labor, the first woman cabinet member
    • women appointed to several other posts
    • Eleanor Roosevelt a model for activism
end of the new deal
End of the New Deal
  • 1936--New Deal peaks with Roosevelt’s reelection
  • Congress resists programs after 1936
the election of 1936
The Election of 1936
  • FDR’s campaign
    • attacks the rich
    • promises further reforms
    • defeats Republican Alf Landon
  • Democrats win lopsided majorities in both houses of Congress
  • FDR coalition: South, cities, labor, ethnic groups, African Americans, poor
the supreme court fight
The Supreme Court Fight
  • Supreme Court blocks several of FDR’s first-term programs
  • 1937--FDR seeks right to "pack" Court
  • Congressional protest forces retreat
  • FDR’s opponents emboldened
the new deal in decline
The New Deal in Decline
  • 1936--cutbacks for relief agencies
  • 1937--severe slump hits economy
  • Roosevelt blamed, resorts to huge government spending
  • 1938--Republican party revives
the new deal and american life
The New Deal and American Life
  • New Deal’s limitations
    • depression not ended
    • economic system not fundamentally altered
    • little done for those without political clout
  • Achievements
    • Social Security, the Wagner Act
    • political realignment of the 1930s