Personal and Occupational Safety in the Workplace Instructional Materials Service IMS #8000G
Objectives • Locate sources of information regarding relevant safety policies and regulations. • Identify proper safety procedures. • Apply safe working practices to all training/working situations.
Introduction • Everyone shares the responsibility of safety, whether at home, in school, or in the workplace. • The responsibility for safety is shared between children, parents, students, employees, and employers. • Safety benefits everyone!
Introduction • Webster defines safety as “protection against accidents and breakage.” • Safety has also been defined as a “state of being relatively free from harm, danger, injury, or damage.” • Prevention is one key to safety.
Introduction • Prevention is stopping an injury before it occurs. • Safety is knowing what to do once the accident has occurred. • It may not be possible to prevent all accidents from happening, but it is possible to decrease the number of serious injuries.
Introduction • Each year, nearly 6,000 people die from workplace injuries. • Another 4 million suffer non-fatal injury or illness. • In the agriculture industry alone, over 700 workers die in work-related accidents yearly. • Another 120,000 suffer disabling injuries.
Introduction • These figures are an improvement from the 1,200 deaths and 140,000 disabling injuries in 1992. • However, these figures are still much too high when considered in proportion to the total American population. • Only about 2% of the workforce is engaged in full-time agricultural production.
Common Hazards Associated with Agricultural Occupations • Mechanical • Electrical • Chemical • Livestock • Environmental
Mechanical Hazards • Leading cause of fatal injury in the industry between 1996 and 2001. • Over 4,000 died due to accidents involving tractors, trucks, fishing boats, harvesting machines, mowing machines, and other agricultural machines. • Machinery is also the leading cause of non-fatal injury in the industry.
Mechanical Hazards • Tractors are responsible for 350-450 fatalities each year. • Common tractor-related accidents include: • overturns; • runovers; • entanglements in power drivelines; and • highway collisions.
General Safety Tips for Tractor Operation • Set parking brake when tractor is stopped. • Ensure tractor is equipped with a bypass starter. • This prevents jump-starting and reduces the likelihood that someone could be run over if tractor lurches forward when jump-started.
General Safety Tips for Tractor Operation • Be sure all people are clear of the machine before moving. • When driving at a mere 5 mph, it still takes 1.6 seconds and 12 feet to stop a tractor. Relationship Between Tractor Speed and Stopping
General Safety Tips for Tractor Operations • Farm equipment should be hitched properly. • At the drawbar and recommended hitch points. • Failure to properly hitch equipment results in instability and may cause a rear overturn. Drawbar
Rollover Protective Structures • Tractors should be equipped with rollover protective structures (ROPS). • These devices, in conjunction with wearing a seatbelt, prevent the driver from being crushed in the event of an overturn. ROPS
Rollover Protective Structures • Since 1976, ROPS have been designed into the cabs of new tractors. • ROPS can also be purchased to fit older models. • When used appropriately, it is estimated that ROPS and seat belts are 99% effective in preventing death or serious injury in the event of an overturn and would save 350 lives annually.
Avoiding Tractor Overturns • Tractors should not be operated on slopes greater than 20 to 25 degrees. Photo Courtesy of USDA CREES
Avoiding Tractor Overturns • Embankments, ditches, and holes should be avoided when possible. • Reduce driving speed when turning, crossing slopes, or driving on rough, slick, or muddy surfaces.
Preventing Runovers • Each year many people die when run over by a tractor. • In almost all instances, the person was a passenger while someone else was operating the tractor. • Extra riders can be thrown from a tractor in the event of an overturn, when the tractor hits a bump, during a sudden stop or sharp turn, or when leaning against the door of an enclosed cab.
Preventing Runovers • Passengers can also distract the operator, blocking access to controls, or obstructing the operator’s view. • The best way to avoid such dangers is to adopt a “No Riders” policy.
Preventing Entanglements in Power Take Off Drivelines • PTOs involve a rotating bar that attaches implements such as augers, mowers, and choppers to the tractor and transfers power from the tractor to the implement. • This energy transfer is achieved by turning at speeds of 9-16 rotations per second. PTO
Preventing Entanglements in Power Take Off Drivelines • If used incorrectly, PTOs can maim or kill a person before the person even has a chance to react. • PTOs should have a machine shield or guard covering the moving parts. PTO Master Shield
Tips for Preventing Entanglements in Power Take Off Drivelines • Wear close fitting clothes. • Avoid clothes with a drawstring. • Make sure clothes are not torn. • Remove jewelry. • Tie back long hair. • Never step over a rotating PTO. • Never start or stop the PTO unless seated in the tractor.
Transporting Agricultural Machinery • Transport of agricultural machinery can be dangerous to the operator as well as those sharing the road. • Thousands of accidents occur each year involving farm machinery and other vehicles.
Tips for Safely Transporting Agricultural Machinery • Equipment should be equipped with clean, bright slow moving vehicle (SMV) emblems. • This helps warn approaching drivers and is required by state law on all equipment moving at less than 25 miles per hour on roadways. Slow Moving Vehicle Emblem
Tips for Safely Transporting Agricultural Machinery • Functional headlights, hazard warning lights, and turn signals will provide advance notice to approaching vehicles. • Avoid transport of farm equipment at dawn or dusk. Hazard Lights
Tips for Safely Transporting Agricultural Machinery • When towing a trailer or other piece of equipment, do not tow more than one at a time. • Always use at least one safety chain in addition to the hitch bar. Safety Chain
All-Terrain Vehicles • Commonly used in agricultural work. • Often treated as a form or recreation and not given proper respect, especially by youth. • Between 1982 and 2002, one-third of all ATV accidents occurred in youth under age 16.
2005 National FFA Convention ATV Survey • At the 2005 National FFA Convention, youth were asked to participate in a survey regarding ATV use and safety. • Participants ranged in age from 12-20 and included both males and females.
2005 National FFA ConventionATV Survey Results • 37% of boys and 20% of girls had been hurt in an ATV accident. • Only 22% of survey participants had received any safety training. • 25% never wear a helmet. • Only 12% never allow a passenger. • Most participants operate larger ATVs than recommended for their age.
Tips for Safe Operation of All-Terrain Vehicles • Wear a helmet. • Operate a machine appropriate for your size and age. • Avoid paved roads. • Be free from the influence of alcohol or drugs.
Tips for Safe Operationof All-Terrain Vehicles • Cease operation in adverse weather conditions. • Receive proper training. • Avoid unnecessary risks and inappropriate behavior.
Electrical Hazards • Electrical shock results from accidents involving electricity. • Possible outcomes of electrical shock: • Burned flesh. • Respiratory failure. • Cardiac arrest. • Permanent disfigurement. • Death.
Electrical Hazards • The following can be responsible for electrical accidents: • Contact with overhead electrical lines. • Electrical shorts in buildings and work areas. • Contact with electrical wiring. • Malfunction of or inappropriate use of power tools.
Overhead Electrical Lines • Contact can occur when driving under the line with machinery, erecting poles or structures, or using tall ladders. • Be aware of the location of overhead lines and make certain adequate clearance exists before working or traveling below them.
Buildings and Work Areas • Electrical panels should be covered. • Work areas should be equipped with Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters (GFCI) and three-prong grounding plugs. • All switches and outlets should be covered with face plates.
Power Tools • Power tools should always be properly functioning and not be used if damaged. • Insulation around the cord should be fully intact and without cuts or tears. • When repairing or cleaning tools, be sure to switch off and unplug the tool.
Power Tools • When unplugging a tool, grip it by the plug, not the cord. • When carrying a power tool, do not carry it by the cord. • If a tool is equipped with safety guards or shields, never remove them, and always keep them in good shape.
Power Tools • In the event of a tool starting to smoke or burn, or the endangerment of an operator or bystander, shut off the tool and unplug it, or use an emergency cutoff switch. • Never use electrical tools around water.
Chemical Hazards • Chemical exposure can be a result of: • ingestion by swallowing or eating; • contact with the skin; • contact with the eyes, or • inhaling or breathing it into the lungs.
Tips for Safely Handling Chemicals • Use appropriate protective clothing or gear. • Protective gear may include rubber gloves, mask, eye goggles, long-sleeved shirt, long pants, or close-toed shoes. • Wash clothes exposed to chemicals separately from the rest of the laundry. Photo Courtesy of USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service
Chemical Labeling • A chemical label provides information regarding potential hazards associated with the chemical product. • Hazard level categories include: • Caution • Warning • Danger
Caution • Lowest level of potential harm. • Exposure isn’t likely to produce permanent damage if appropriate first-aid is rendered. • Common ailments upon exposure include eye or skin inflammation, dizziness, or upset stomach.
Warning • Indicates the potential for serious illness or harm.
Danger • Highest level of potential harm. • Exposure may result in tissue damage to the eyes or skin. • If swallowed, the result could be damage to the mouth, throat, and stomach; or even death.
Proper Chemical Storage • Chemicals should be kept in locked storage, out of reach of children. • Chemicals should be stored in their original, labeled container. • Storing chemicals in unapproved containers, especially containers formerly containing foodstuff, is dangerous because it can easily be mistaken for something else that poses no danger. • Empty chemical containers should be disposed of properly and not reused for storing something else.
Livestock Hazards • Livestock is a leading cause of nonfatal occupational farming injuries. • This is rivaled only by machinery. • Additionally, countless visitors and family members that are not employed by the farm are injured by livestock each year.
Instincts and Characteristics Making Livestock Dangerous • Difficulty judging distances. • Easily spooked by sudden or loud noises, changes in lighting or shadows, and swift or sudden movements. • Highly territorial and extremely protective of their young. • Tendency to become unpredictable and aggressive when separated from the group.
Tips for Safely Handling and Working With Livestock • Remain calm, move slowly, and avoid making loud noises. • Avoid animals with newborns and bulls, boars, rams, or stallions. Photo Courtesy of USDA Agricultural Research Service
Tips for Safely Handling and Working With Livestock • Approach animals, particularly cattle and horses, at the shoulder, and avoid their hind legs. Photo Courtesy of USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service
Tips for Safely Handling and Working With Livestock • Always have an escape route, especially in enclosed spaces. • Consistently and properly use available restraining equipment. Photo Courtesy of USDA Agricultural Research Service