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Effects of Chemicals Extracted from Cigarette Butts on Mongo(“ Vigna Radiata ”) Plant. DANIELLE GRACIA Demavivas PANES MARISTELLE Jimenez REGENCIA. Background of the Study.

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Effects of Chemicals Extracted from Cigarette Butts on Mongo(“ Vigna Radiata ”) Plant


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    1. Effects of Chemicals Extracted from Cigarette Butts on Mongo(“VignaRadiata”) Plant DANIELLE GRACIA Demavivas PANES MARISTELLE Jimenez REGENCIA

    2. Background of the Study Our planet Earth is called green planet, mainly because it contains life. Plants are sources of oxygen. They are also used as medicine. Many other plant-based products shape our lives like lumber, fuel, paper, fabrics, beverages, and spices. Nowadays, people mostly grow plants like vegetables in their garden to reduce the expense they spend in the market. But, some of these plant owners are cigarette users. Sometimes, they throw their cigarette butts or their unfinished lighted cigarette on the soil near the plant. This can cause soil pollution. Over 4,000 chemicals are present in cigarettes which could have various toxic and carcinogenic effects. Toxic substances of cigarettes cause diseases among humans and harm the environment. The researchers decided to study the effects of cigarette butts on plants by extracting the chemicals of it in tap water and use it to contaminate the soil and determine the physical changes of mongo plants.

    3. Statement of the Problem • Main Problem: Can the chemicals present in the cigarette butts cause physical changes to mongo plants? • Sub-problems: 1) What are the physical characteristics of mongo plants exposed to tap water with no chemicals from the cigarette butts in terms of: a) Leaf Color b) Number of Leaves c) Plant Height d) Plant Weight?

    4. 2) What are the physical characteristics of mongo plants exposed to the chemicals from first extraction of cigarette butts in tap water as soil contaminant in terms of: a) Leaf Color b) Number of Leaves c) Plant Height d) Plant Weight? 3) What are the physical characteristics of mongo plants exposed to the chemicals from second extraction of cigarette butts in tap water as soil contaminant in terms of: a) Leaf Color b) Number of Leaves c) Plant Height d) Plant Weight?

    5. 4) What are the physical characteristics of mongo plants exposed to the chemicals from third extraction of cigarette butts in tap water as soil contaminant in terms of: a) Leaf Color b) Number of Leaves c) Plant Height d) Plant Weight? 5) What are the physical characteristics of mongo plants exposed to the chemicals from fourth extraction of cigarette butts in tap water as soil contaminant in terms of: a) Leaf Color b) Number of Leaves c) Plant Height d) Plant Weight?

    6. 6) Is there a significant difference in the physical characteristics of mongo plants exposed to 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th extraction of chemical from cigarette butts in tap water as soil contaminant? 7) Is there a significant difference in the physical characteristics of mongo plants exposed to tap water and mongo plants exposed to the chemicals extracted from cigarette butts in tap water as soil contaminant?

    7. Methodology • Research Design The study will deal with the determination of the effects of extracted chemicals from cigarette butts in tap water on the physical characteristics of mongo plants such as the color and number of leaves, height and weight of the plants. Five groups will be prepared; one set-up will serve as the control group and the other four set-ups as the experimental group that is exposed to the extracted chemicals from cigarette butts in tap water as soil contaminant.

    8. Fifteen mongo plants will be tested in each set-up on control and experimental group. Three weeks will be spent to observe changes in the physical appearance of the mongo plants. The data on the changes of physical characteristics of mongo plants will be recorded on a daily basis. Three repetitions will be conducted in this experiment.

    9. Flow Chart

    10. Experimental Set-up

    11. Plants will be removed from the soil and any loose soil will be washed off. It will blot gently with soft paper towel to remove any free surface moisture then will be weighed immediately to prevent some drying. • Leaf Color Chart -  (LCC) is a plastic, ruler-shaped strip containing four panels that range in color from yellowish green to dark green.

    12. Gathering of Data

    13. Statistical Tool To verify if there is a significant difference among the effects of chemicals extracted from cigarette butts on mongo plants, the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) will be conducted.

    14. Rationale

    15. Bibliography BOOKS • Dr. Joel Dunnington, Tobacco Almanac, Revised, May 1993 • ONLINE DATABASE (JOURNALS) • Thomson Gale, 2005, Nicotine Summary www.bookrags.com • Peter de Vries, 2010 Mixture Behaviour of Tars www.soilandsystem.nl • Stuart M Bennett, 2001, DDT www.the-piedpiper.co.uk WEBSITES • Acetone, Water, and Chromatography, 2006 www.newton.dep.anl.gov • Arsenic and water, 1998 www.lenntech.com • Cyanide Chemistry, 2006 www.cyanide.org • Formaldehyde, 2002 www.environmentwriter.org • Hydrogen Cyanide, 2002 www.chemicalland21.com • Matitolhttp://www.fao.org/docrep/W6355E/w6355e0j.htm • Methoprenehttp://usgs.wildlifeinformation.org/List_Vols/westnile/Chemicals/metho.htm • Physical properties of freon, 1999 www.ehow.com/chem • Properties of Carbon Monoxide, (n.d.) in Wikipedia • Solubility of Ammonia, (n.d.) www.wikepedia.org • Solubility, newton.dep.anl.gov, 1995 • Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4), 2000 www.chemicalland21.com • yahoo.com • http://www.answers.com/topic/nicotine • http://www.longwood.edu/cleanva/ciglitterarticle.htm • http://www.longwood.edu/cleanva/cigbuttfilters.htm • http://www.oxygen.org.au/hardfacts/tobacco-and-the-environment • http://www.thefreelibrary.com/How+Cigarettes+Affect+the+Environment-a01074031076 • http://www.uwgb.edu/biodiversity/biota/plants/importance_of_plants.htm