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Clauses and Sentence Structures. (Not the Santa type…ha!). What is a clause?. A clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a verb. Your genes carry your family’s genetic history. Subject: genes Verb: carry. Independent Clauses.

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clauses and sentence structures

Clauses and Sentence Structures

(Not the Santa type…ha!)

what is a clause
What is a clause?
  • A clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a verb.
    • Your genes carry your family’s genetic history.
      • Subject: genes
      • Verb: carry
independent clauses
Independent Clauses
  • Express a complete thought and can stand alone as a sentence.
    • Genes contain the code for your physical appearance.
dependent subordinate clauses
Dependent (Subordinate) Clauses
  • Contain a subject and a verb but do not express a complete thought. They cannot stand alone.
  • Often begin with if, because, even though, how, what, why, that, while, when, and since.
    • that determines your height
    • because inherited traits often skip a generation
subordinate clauses need independent clauses
Subordinate Clauses need Independent Clauses!
  • To express a complete thought, a subordinate clause must be joined with, or be a part of, an independent clause.
    • Because Britney Spears can’t sing, many people refuse to buy her latest record.
    • Kevin Federline has the paperwork that says he gets the kids full time.
what s the difference between a clause and a phrase
What’s the difference between a clause and a phrase?
  • Don’t confuse a subordinate clause with a phrase. Unlike a clause, a phrase has no subject and/or verb!!!
    • Driving over the bridge, she sneezed. (participial phrase modifying “she”)
    • As she was driving over the bridge, she sneezed. (dependent clause)
adjective clauses
Adjective Clauses
  • Subordinate clauses that function as adjectives to modify nouns or pronouns.
  • They usually follow the word(s) they modify.
  • Like adjectives, they answer the questions
    • Which one
    • What kind
    • How many
    • How much
adjective clause examples
Adjective Clause Examples
  • Britney Spears is more than a singer who has a drug problem.
  • It was she who began the teen pop tart revolution.
relative pronouns adverbs
Relative Pronouns/Adverbs
  • Introduce adjective clauses.
  • Called relative because they RELATE adjective clauses to the words they modify.
    • Relative Pronouns: who, whom, whose, that, which
    • Relative Adverbs: when, where, why
essential adjective clauses
Essential Adjective Clauses
  • Provide necessary information to identify the preceding noun or pronoun.
    • Someone who is your first cousin is the child of your aunt or uncle.
  • THAT is used to introduce an essential clause
nonessential adjective clauses
Nonessential Adjective Clauses
  • Add information to a noun or pronoun in a sentence in which the meaning is already clear.
  • Set off by commas.
    • Irene, who is your first cousin, was married last fall.
  • WHICH is used to introduce a nonessential clause
adverb clauses
Adverb Clauses
  • Subordinate clauses that modify verbs, adjectives, or adverbs.
  • Like adverbs, the clauses tell
    • Where
    • Why
    • How
    • When
    • To what extent
adverb clause examples
Adverb Clause Examples
  • Most children leave home when the time is right.
  • Many are marrying later in life than their parents did.
subordinating conjunctions
Subordinating Conjunctions
  • Adverb clauses are often introduced by a subordinating conjunction
  • These are the most common subordinating conjunctions:

after before till

although even though unless

as if until

as if in order that when

as long as since whenever

as soon as so that where

as though than wherever

because though while

when do i need a comma
When do I need a comma?
  • An adverb clause that comes before the independent clause is set off by commas.
  • An adverb clause that comes after the independent clause does NOT need commas.
noun clauses
Noun Clauses
  • Subordinate Clauses used as nouns
  • Can be S, PN, OP, DO, or IO
noun clause examples
Noun Clause Examples
  • That my brothers and sisters influence me is obvious.
  • They know exactly what drives me crazy.
  • My parents tell whoever is loudest to quiet down.
  • My sister’s or brother’s praise is also what inspires me.
  • We encourage each other in whatever ways we can.
noun clause hint
Noun Clause Hint!
  • If you can substitute the word someone or something for a clause in a sentence, it is a noun clause.
noun clauses1
Noun Clauses
  • Introduced by a subordinating conjunction or by a pronoun.
    • How much brothers and sisters argue depends on their ages.
    • You usually argue with whoever is closest to your age.
sentence structure
Sentence Structure
  • Simple Sentence: 1 Independent Clause and NO Subordinating Clause
    • Mrs. Cottrill is cool.
  • Compound Sentence: 2 or more Independent Clauses
    • Mrs.Cottrill is my English teacher, and Mr. Belcher is my history teacher.
sentence structure cont
Sentence Structure, cont.
  • Complex Sentence: 1 Independent Clause and 1 or more Subordinate Clauses
    • Although she is not as popular as my sister, I still really like hanging out with my best friend.
  • Compound-Complex Sentence: 2 or more Independent Clauses and 1 or more Subordinate Clauses
    • On November 20, 1980, Mrs. Cottrill was born, and the world finally got to see someone that would eventually make English fun and love Freshmen.