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CAES1507 Professional and Technical Written Communication for Engineers. Session Ten Writing Conclusion and Recommendations. Introduction (Background, Objective, Purpose of the report, Lead-in)

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CAES1507 Professional and Technical Written Communication for Engineers


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    1. CAES1507 Professional and Technical Written Communication for Engineers Session Ten Writing Conclusion and Recommendations

    2. Introduction (Background, Objective, Purpose of the report, Lead-in) Main Body (Materials, Engineering principles, Construction Procedure, Testing Procedure, Results and Discussion) Conclusion and Recommendations Technical Report

    3. Conclusion • Brings a final closure to the readers. • It should not repeat the facts, rather it should present the writer’s interpretation of the facts. • If you cannot draw any firm conclusions you should say so in this section and perhaps suggest why not. • The conclusion section can be presented as a list or in paragraph form or a combination of both.

    4. Conclusion You may include the following points: • Relate your findings to the original objectives. • Interpret and compare the objective(s) with what you found. • Point out unexpected results, limitations and discrepancies. • Point out whether or not you achieved the objectives. DO NOT introduce any new ideas in the Conclusion. PAST TENSE should be used.

    5. Conclusion – Guiding Questions • Were the objectives of this project achieved? Were they just partially achieved? • How did the engineering principles have an impact on your designs and hence the test results? • Did your prototype achieve satisfactory results during tests? If not, could you account for the reasons behind such unexpected results? • Were there any limitations imposed on your design, test procedure, etc. that had an impact on the results?

    6. Conclusion – an example (p. 53) • Read the example Conclusion: • correct the verb tense • identify the information included in each paragraph.

    7. The humane mousetrap prototype developed by the R & D team fulfilled all the criteria requested in the project. The team designed the trap so that middle school students could build it themselves. Simple physical principles wereutilized for the working mechanism of the device. It functioned due to gravity and a simple pulley and lever system. The prototype used only the specified materials to create a mousetrap which did not harm the mouse. State that the prototype meets the requirement of the project Relate to the objective of the project PAST TENSE Conclusion

    8. The design was made of separate components which when assembled, could trap a mouse unharmed and at the same time complete a circuit to alert people to the fact. Multiple tests gave useful feedback to improve the structure of the sliding gate. Subsequent tests indicated that the mechanism worked smoothly and could withstand repeated use. Recap the design and functions + relate to the objective Recap the test Problem of the design Results obtained and the implications Conclusion

    9. Recommendations • Offer your judgment on what action to take based on the Conclusions. • The Recommendations should be clear cut and to the point. • If the Conclusions are presented as a list, the Recommendations may also appear as a list but this is not required. • However, these two sections do not necessarily need to be presented in point form. In some cases they will be in paragraph form and in some cases in a combination of both.

    10. Recommendations – an example (p. 53) • Read the example Recommendations • see how they relate to the Conclusion • underline the prominent modal verb used

    11. Specific patterns for constructing the mechanism should be provided in the kit so that all the component parts fit properly. The wire, light bulb, battery and marble should be provided in the kit so that they conform to the dimensions of the light switch mechanism. Caution should be given that an adult should be presentwhen a mouse has been trapped so that the mouse can be removed or disposed of in a proper way. A piece of sandpaper should be included in the kit in case the sliding gate needs to be trimmed. Use of modals - Should, Would, Could Passive Voice Present tense Frequent use of so thatto justify the recommendations Recommendations

    12. Practice Task 1 (p. 54) Conclusion and Recommendations • The Conclusion and Recommendations sections should be related by a logical connection of points raised. • Read the following Conclusion and Recommendations from another mousetrap report. • Indicate the points where the writer makes a connection between the two sections.

    13. Conclusion The project’s aim to design a mousetrap made from limited materials which would trap a mouse in a humane way as well as activating a light source, was achieved. The advantages of the mousetrap were that the device was re-usable, movable to any location on the ground and it would easily attract a mouse. The various parts of the mousetrap could be efficiently assembled and disassembled so that they fitted into the container, while the container serves as the housing for the device once it was made. Significant results + Relate to the Objectives

    14. A limitation of the device was that it could only trap mice of a certain size which could enter the tin can built into the system. A design flaw was that the marbles may roll away out of the device. This could be corrected with an adjustment to the track mechanism without any major changes to the overall design. The wooden clothes peg mechanism functioned adequately but was not 100% consistent because of the awkward way it had to be fitted into the stricter. While the electronic system worked in the theory, it was actually quite dull because of the low capacity battery. Limitations

    15. Recommendations Experiments with the marble track mechanism need to be conducted to find the most stable set up. Plastic clothes pegs should be provided or recommended because they are easier to handle and are more consistent in quality. The size of the light bulb and battery should be investigated to see if a brighter light or a colored light bulb would make the set-up more interesting. The possibility of creating such a set up to trap insects, e.g. should be considered. Use of Modals to present your recommendations – SHOULD, NEED, CAN, etc PRESENT TENSE throughout Passive Voice Frequent use of ‘so that’ / because – Justify reasons

    16. Practice Task 1 Conclusion and Recommendations • A design flaw was that the marbles may roll away out of the device. This could be corrected with an adjustment to the track mechanism without any major changes to the overall design. • Experiments with the marble track mechanism need to be conducted to find the most stable set up.

    17. Practice Task 1 Conclusion and Recommendations • The wooden clothes peg mechanism functioned adequately but was not 100% consistent because of the awkward way it had to be fitted into the stricter. • Plastic clothes pegs should be provided or recommended because they are easier to handle and are more consistent in quality.

    18. Practice Task 1 Conclusion and Recommendations • While the electronic system worked in the theory, it was actually quite dull because of the low capacity battery. • The size of the light bulb and battery should be investigated to see if a brighter light or a colored light bulb would make the set-up more interesting.

    19. Cohesion in Writing • Sentences in a Conclusion need to be written in a logical order of ideas with appropriate use of linking words. • Here is a conclusion from another report on the analysis of brittle material. • The sentences have been jumbled so that they are not in the correct order. Read through the sentences and number them in the order you think would be best.

    20. Therefore, it is extremely useful for those who are chicken-hearted. The assembly is simple and straightforward and uses the available materials in a practical way. • If it supports the can too firmly, the can will not pivot and then not turn upright. • The prototype mousetrap developed in this project is a good alternative to the type used nowadays because it is very hygienic as there is no blood and corpse to deal with. • Experimenting with alternative materials is called for to try and improve the function of the moving parts • The whole system can be adjusted to accommodate mice of different sizes by adjusting the can size and the connecting tube. • The project achieved the aims of the project with the materials allowed. • However, the smoothness of rotation of the can depends heavily on the position of the clothes peg. • That means the mouse can escape after it has fallen into the can.

    21. The prototype mousetrap developed in this project is a good alternative to the type used nowadays because it is very hygienic as there is no blood and corpse to deal with. Therefore, it is extremely useful for those who are chicken-hearted. The assembly is simple and straightforward and uses the available materials in a practical way. The whole system can be adjusted to accommodate mice of different sizes by adjusting the can size and the connecting tube. If it supports the can too firmly, the can will not pivot and then not turn upright. That means the mouse can escape after it has fallen into the can. However, the smoothness of rotation of the can depends heavily on the position of the clothes peg. Experimenting with alternative materials is called for to try and improve the function of the moving parts. The project achieved the aims of the project with the materials allowed. General Introduction –Topic Sentence It – Pronoun ref. Cause-Effect Relationship / Logical connective Repetition of terms Connect the two sentences Logical connective Conclusion

    22. Enhancing Cohesion in Paragraph • Several ways of establishing cohesion • Use of transitional phrases / logical connectives • Repetition of key terms • Substitute pronouns for nouns • Substitute terms used /Use synonyms for key terms • Use It / This as reference markers

    23. Identify the cohesion devices used in this paragraph. Passports are usually issued by a country’s immigration department. Passports are one of the most important documents needed for travel to an international destination. They are normally used for entry into another country and sometimes even for exit. This type of travel document is regarded as the best way to identify a person identity. Owing to the importance of passports, it is vital that they are produced in a high security environment so that a country can be assured that a person’s travel document is legitimate.

    24. Passports are usually issued by a country’s immigration department. Passports are one of the most important documents needed for travel to an international destination. They are normally used for entry into another country and sometimes even for exit. This type of travel document is regarded as the best way to identify a person identity. Owing to the importance of passports, it is vital that they are produced in a high security environment so that a country can be assured that a person’s travel document is legitimate. Key term Repetition of key term Words used as substitute Pronoun used as substitute Substitute term used Repetition of key term Pronoun Logical connector Substitute term used

    25. Preparation for Writing Now discuss the following questions: • Were the objectives of this project achieved? Were they just partially achieved? • How did the engineering principles have an impact on your designs and hence the test results? • Did your prototype achieve satisfactory results during tests? If not, could you account for the reasons behind such unexpected results? • Were there any limitations imposed on your design, test procedure, etc. that had an impact on the results? Are there any recommendations to remedy the problems?