Loading in 2 Seconds...
Loading in 2 Seconds...
Universal Design for Learning (UDL) and Your Classroom Fitting the Pieces Together Marilyn Goodrich
Objectives • To define and build a foundational knowledge of Universal Design for Learning (UDL). • To identify how UD and UDL impacts the environment and instructional environment. • To explain the role of technology in UDL. • To identify key concepts in brain research focusing on learning differences. • To identify what resources are available to support UDL in instruction.
Universal Design for Learning Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is a framework for the design of curriculum in order to attend to the learning needs of diverse learners, strengths, interests, backgrounds, cultural needs, and student interests in the classroom (Howard, 2004).
Universal Design for Learning Influenced by: • Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), in 1997 • Assistive Technology Act, in 1998 (NECTAC, 2010).
Where did the concept of Universal Design originate? The Universal Design concept originated from architecture and product development. The universal design movement in the 1990’s identified designs that would provide access for the greatest number of people using the architecture or product possible in order to not have to provide costly adaptations and accommodations in the future if and when needed (CAST, 2010).
Some examples are… • Curb cuts and sidewalk ramps • Kitchen counters with varying heights • Drawers with a variety of pulls • Wider doors • Closed captioning • Light switches with flat controls • Volume and speed controls on audio • Icons and text labels • Ramp access to swimming pools and other facilities
Where did Universal Design for Learning originate? UDL is a set of principles for developing curriculum that allows for equal access and opportunities to learn. It is based on the Universal Design principle, but connects to the area of instruction by having instruction accessible for all students. The framework focuses on the areas of methods, materials, assessment, instruction that are flexible and are able to be customized for individual student needs (Cast, 2010).
Some examples are… • Using assistive technology devices to express verbal and written tasks • Graphic and visual aides • Text-to-speech software • Offer of choices for learning, rewards, and tools • Offering various ways to demonstrate learning • Providing multiple examples of concepts
1. Multiple Means of Representation Guideline 1 Provide options for perception Guideline 2 Provide options for language and symbols Guideline 3 Provide options for comprehension (Cast, 2009c)
2. Multiple Means of Action and Expression Guideline 4 Provide options for physical action Guideline 5 Provide options for expressive skills and fluency Guideline 6 Provide options for executive functions (Cast, 2009c)
3. Multiple Means of Engagement Guideline 7 Provide options for recruiting interests Guideline 8 Provide options for sustaining effort and persistence Guideline 9 Provide options for self-regulation (Cast, 2009c)
Learning Differences… • English Language Learners • Speech and language disabilities • Emotional and behavioral issues • Sensory and physical disabilities • Mental retardation • Cultural barriers • Autism • Learning disabilities
Connections to Learning Differences The brain consists of a large network of connections that help each part of the brain communicate more effectively. Smaller networks inside the brain perform different types of processing and managing of learning tasks. The three (3) networks include the recognition, strategic, and affective networks.
Connections to Learning Differences (cont.) All three work together to coordinate tasks no matter how simple. All three (3) share two (2) characteristics that affect learning that focuses on how processing is distributed. How the networks distribute the processing is different for each person. These differences are how everyone has distinctive learning tendencies.
Three (3) Brain Networks • Recognition Networks • Strategic Networks • Affective Networks (Cast, 2010)
1. Recognition Networks • It is the “what of learning”. • Located in the back of the brain. • Enables us to be able to identify and interpret the things we hear, see, smell, and touch. • In the classroom we need to represent the curriculum in multiple ways. • Teachers need to provide a variety of options for learning. • Materials need to be accessible to all students. (Cast, 2010)
Classroom Examples to Support Recognition Networks • Using a variety of tools such as graphic/visual organizers for example using Inspiration software to collect and represent student knowledge before reading or learning about a topic. • Using technology for visual representation such as using digital video, images, audio for learning about a topic instead of reading text.
2. Strategic Networks • The “how of learning”. • in learning situations. • Located in the front half of the brain. • Allows us to plan, execute, and monitor our actions and our skill learning and development. • Teachers need to provide multiple means of action and expression in the classroom. (Cast, 2010)
Classroom Examples to Support Strategic Networks • When students are given a project to do allow students to choose from a variety of options to demonstrate their understanding of the concepts they have learned such as using technology tools to prepare and present. • Look at student learning style and how they mat like to represent their learning such as through dance, poetry, writing, demonstration, or even a model. • Supporting students in their organization and management of the information they acquire using software such as Inspiration. • Scaffolding learning supports.
3. Affective Networks • The “why of learning”. • Located at core of the brain. • Essential to learning. • Supports development of preferences, priorities, and interests. • Assists us with evaluating patterns. (Cast, 2010)
Classroom Examples to Support Affective Networks • During research or project design, students are provided with choices of tools for gathering their information and/or presenting their projects such as computers, audiovisual devices, or using paper and pencil. • Activities that the teacher presents to students are connected to authentic, real-world issues, serve a purpose, and can be exchanged with an audience.
How Technology and UDL Connect Accessible and information technology include the principles of UDL and allows individuals with disabilities and abilities to access and use the technologies (National Center on Accessible Information Technology In Education, 2010).
How Technology and UDL ConnectExamples • Copy and ATM machines • Multi-media products • Computer software • Websites
UDL and New Technologies New technologies should have accessibility built into them in the beginning as they are being developed to ensure that all students are included and are able to access the learning opportunities from the start (NECTAC, 2010).
Assistive Technology and UDL UDL does not stop the need for students to have assistive technology devices for communicating and learning (NECTAC, 2010).
1. Digital/Electronic text • Can be larger or easier to see • Can be read aloud to hear • Highlight or cut and paste text • Could provide a summary of text to be read before actual reading of text (WestEd, 2010)
2. Audio • Highlights individual words and reads them aloud • Can provide definition of word • Can hear section of web site or entire site read aloud • Can have their own writing be read aloud by computer (WestEd, 2010)
3. Digital Enhancement • Visual displays can be adjusted • Can have an auditory display read • Can embed learning supports • Can copy, paste, and manipulate text as needed (WestEd, 2010)
4. Software • Outlining and highlighting of text • Formatting of text to make it easier to read • Can have computer read text aloud • Can find and correct mistakes on the screen • Hidden comments can be made • Digital templates can be created by teacher or student (WestEd, 2010)
5. Visual • Mental pictures • Graphics • Diagrams • Drawings • Models • Maps and charts • Using real images-video or photographs (WestEd, 2010)
6. Curricular Supports • Online math tools • Interactive games • Interactive science labs • Rubrics for grading • Web-based tools for writing • Online lesson plans • Online collaboration sites (WestEd, 2010)
1. UDL Lesson Builder http://lessonbuilder.cast.org/ This tool assists teachers with developing and adapting lessons that will increase the participation and success of students in the general education curriculum. It also provides a background on what Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is. (Cast, 2008)
Valuable for our school… Teachers would be able to use the Lesson Builder site to learn about actual model lessons to make their instruction more solid. Teachers could use the various tools available on the lesson builder pages in order to create and save their own lessons that incorporate UDL into their instruction.
2. UDL Curriculum Self-Check http://udlselfcheck.cast.org/ This tool provides teachers with the opportunity to identify and apply UDL goals into their instruction in order to engage all of the students in the classroom. (Cast, 2009b)
Valuable for our school… Teachers would be able to access this tool and locate UDL goals, methods, materials, and assessments. Resources are also available for teachers to learn more about the UDL framework and using it in their classrooms.
3. Book Builder http://bookbuilder.cast.org/ This tool provides teachers with a way to create their own digital storybooks for the students in their classrooms. Teachers and students can read books, share books, and publish their own books on the site. (Cast, 2009a)
Valuable for our school… Teachers can locate and access books for the many diverse student learning/reading needs in the classroom. Books vary by subject and are easy to access. Students can create their own digital books, publish them, and share them with other students/classrooms.
How Can UDL Help Teachers? • Provide additional professional development on the principles of UDL and how it can enhance instruction. • Provide examples of classrooms that are implementing UDL into the instruction. • Provide time for teachers to meet at grade level or content area level teams. • Provide lesson plan assistance and supports. • Provide additional resources and links to access additional information and learning. (Rose & Meyer, 2002)
How Can UDL Help Students? • Provide a variety of activities and tasks and allow students to choose. • Provide additional materials for student use. • Provide instruction on additional technology tools that will assist in learning. • Provide a variety of software that students can access with different support features. • Provide access to web resources. • Provide access to various learning tools.
In Our School… • Student will be able to become more confident in their learning. • Students will be able to access a wider variety of tools for instruction. • Students will be able to be successful learners inside and outside the classroom. • Teachers will begin to see students making AYP. • Teachers will take more ownership in their instructional planning and implementation of UDL. • The atmosphere of the building’s environment will begin to change and evolve into a safe and engaging place of learning. (Laureate Education, Inc., 2009)
References Center for Applied Research and Technology-CAST. (2008). UDL Lesson Builder. Retrieved from http://lessonbuilder.cast.org/ Center for Applied Research and Technology-CAST. (2009a). UDL Book Builder. Retrieved from http://bookbuilder.cast.org/ Center for Applied Research and Technology-CAST. (2009b). UDL Self-Check. Retrieved from http://udlselfcheck.cast.org Center for Applied Research and Technology-CAST. (2009c). CAST UDL online modules. Retrieved from http://udlonline.cast.org/home Center for Applied Research and Technology-CAST. (2010). Research and development in universal design for learning. Retrieved from http://www.cast.org/research/index.html Howard, K. L. (2004). Universal design for learning: Meeting the needs of all students. International Society for Technology in Education, 31(5), 26-29.
References (cont.) Laureate Education, Inc. (Producer). (2009). McLaughlin, M. (Speaker). Program Six. Universal Design for Learning [Motion Picture]. Reaching and Engaging All Learners Through Technology. Baltimore: Author. National Center on Accessible Information Technology in Education. (2010). AccessIT. Retrieved from http://www.washington.edu/accessit/articles?110 National Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center-NECTAC. (2010). Universal design for learning and assistive technology. Retrieved from http://www.nectac.org/topics/atech/udl.asp Rose, D., & Meyer, A. (2002). Teaching every students in the digital age: Universal design for learning. Retrieved from http://www.cast.org/teachingeverystudent/ideas/tes/ WestEd. (2010). Using technology tools to support diverse learners. Retrieved from http://www.wested.org/cs/tdl/print/docs/tdl/home.htm