General military strategic doctrinal operational and leadership concepts
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General Military Strategic, Doctrinal, Operational, and Leadership Concepts. Agenda. Key Theorists Principles of War Facets of the Operational Art Forms of Maneuver METT-TC Strategy Strategic Leadership. Key Theorists. Clausewitz Jomini. Clausewitz. Carl von Clausewitz

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Agenda
Agenda Leadership Concepts

  • Key Theorists

  • Principles of War

  • Facets of the Operational Art

  • Forms of Maneuver

  • METT-TC

  • Strategy

  • Strategic Leadership


Key theorists

Key Theorists Leadership Concepts

Clausewitz

Jomini


Clausewitz
Clausewitz Leadership Concepts

  • Carl von Clausewitz

    • Prussian officer born in 1780

    • Resigned his commission in 1812 and joined the Russian Army to fight Napoleon

    • Ideas on war were heavily influenced by the mass popular warfare of the French Revolutionary period and Napoleon’s Prussian adversary Gerhard von Scharnhorst

    • Died in 1831 and his wife published his On War in 1832


Clausewitz1
Clausewitz Leadership Concepts

  • War is neither an art nor a science

    • It is a continuation of “policy” (or “politics”) by other means.

    • A form of social intercourse

  • War is like a wrestling match

    • It is “an act of force to compel our enemy to do our will.”

    • But it is not unilateral. It is a contest between two independent wills.


Clausewitz2
Clausewitz Leadership Concepts

  • Used a trinitarian analysis consisting of (1) primordial violence, hatred, and enmity; (2) the play of chance and probability; and (3) war’s element of subordination to rational policy

    • Often loosely expressed as “the people, the military, and the government”

  • Analyzed “absolute war” or “war in theory,” but then noted that factors such as poor intelligence, chance, friction, etc make war in practice different than war in the abstract

  • Argued one should focus his military efforts against the enemy’s “center of gravity” (“Schwerpunkt”)

    • Very important concept in American military doctrine


Jomini
Jomini Leadership Concepts

  • Antoine-Henri Jomini (1779-1869) was a Swiss military theorist who sought to interpret Napoleon

  • Published the Summary of the Art of War in 1838

    • Became the premier military-educational text of the mid-nineteenth century and greatly influenced Civil War generals.

    • “Many a Civil War general went into battle with a sword in one hand and Jomini’s Summary of the Art of War in the other” (General J. D. Hittle)

  • Product of the Enlightenment

  • Very geometrical and scientific approach to war

    • Stressed interior lines


Interior lines
Interior Lines Leadership Concepts

Interior

Lines

Exterior

Lines


Principles of war

Principles of War Leadership Concepts


Principles of war1
Principles of War Leadership Concepts

  • British military officer J. F. C. Fuller developed a list of principles based on the works of Clausewitz and Jomini for use by the British Army in World War I

  • The US Army modified them and published its first list in 1921

    • Objective

    • Offensive

    • Mass

    • Economy of force

    • Maneuver

    • Unity of command

    • Security

    • Surprise

    • Simplicity


Objective
Objective Leadership Concepts

  • When undertaking any mission, commanders should have a clear understanding of the expected outcome and its impact. Commanders need to appreciate political ends and understand how the military conditions they achieve contribute to them.

    • Ensure that all actions contribute to the goals of the higher headquarters.

    • Example: Pemberton is going to have difficulty determining if his objective is to defend Vicksburg or defeat Grant’s army


Offensive
Offensive Leadership Concepts

  • Offensive operations are essential to maintain the freedom of action necessary for success, exploit vulnerabilities, and react to rapidly changing situations and unexpected developments.

    • Offensive actions are those taken to dictate the nature, scope, and tempo of an operation.

    • Offensive action is key to achieving decisive results; it is the essence of successful operations.

    • Example: Both Pemberton and Johnston are defensively minded generals. Grant is exactly the opposite.


General military strategic doctrinal operational and leadership concepts
Mass Leadership Concepts

  • Commanders mass the effects of combat power in time and space to overwhelm enemies or gain control of the situation.

    • Time: applies the elements of combat power against multiple targets simultaneously

    • Space : concentrates the effects of different elements of combat power against a single target

    • Example: McPherson will fail to mass his forces at Raymond, instead piecemealing them into the battle as they arrive.


Economy of force
Economy of Force Leadership Concepts

  • Commanders never leave any element without a purpose. When the time comes to execute, all elements should have tasks to perform.

    • Economy of force requires accepting prudent risk in selected areas to achieve superiority in the decisive operation.

    • Economy of force involves the discriminating employment and distribution of forces.

    • Example: Pemberton will leave two divisions guarding Vicksburg that could have been of better use to him at Champion’s Hill.


Maneuver
Maneuver Leadership Concepts

  • As both an element of combat power and a principle of war, maneuver concentrates and disperses combat power to place and keep the enemy at a disadvantage. It includes the dynamic, flexible application of leadership, firepower, information, and protection as well.

    • Achieves results that would otherwise be more costly

    • Keeps enemies off balance by making them confront new problems and new dangers faster than they can deal with them.

    • Example: One of the main themes of this course is that the brilliance of Grant’s generalship is not the siege of Vicksburg itself, but the maneuver that makes it possible.


Unity of command
Unity of Command Leadership Concepts

  • Unity of command means that a single commander directs and coordinates the actions of all forces toward a common objective.

    • Develops the full combat power of a force

    • Usually requires giving a single commander authority

    • Example: The Confederate departmental system will hinder unity of command (and effort) at Vicksburg. On the other hand, Grant and Porter will achieve great unity of effort in a joint operation.


Security
Security Leadership Concepts

  • Calculated risk is inherent in conflict. Security protects and preserves combat power.

    • Does not involve excessive caution

    • Measures taken by a command to protect itself from surprise, interference, sabotage, annoyance, and threat

    • Example: Threats to the Federal lines of communication from Van Dorn and Forrest will markedly influence Grant’s conduct of the campaign.


Surprise
Surprise Leadership Concepts

  • Surprise results from taking actions for which an enemy or adversary is unprepared.

    • It is only necessary that the enemy become aware too late to react effectively.

    • Contributions to surprise include speed, information superiority, and asymmetry.

    • Example: Grant’s preliminary efforts to take Vicksburg between Dec 1862 and Apr 1863 are all failures, but they do serve to keep Pemberton guessing as to the ultimate Federal intent.


Simplicity
Simplicity Leadership Concepts

  • Plans and orders should be simple and direct. Simple plans executed on time are better than detailed plans executed late.

    • Clear and concise plans cut down on misunderstandings

    • Example: The frontal assault is the simplest, but often the most costly, form of maneuver. Lawler successfully used the frontal attack at Big Black River.


Facets of the operational art

Facets of the Operational Art Leadership Concepts


Facets of operational art
Facets of Operational Art Leadership Concepts

  • Synergy

  • Simultaneity and depth

  • Anticipation

  • Balance

  • Leverage

  • Timing and tempo

  • Operational reach and approach


Facets of operational art cont
Facets of Operational Art (cont) Leadership Concepts

  • Forces and functions

  • Arranging operations

  • Centers of gravity

  • Direct versus indirect

  • Decisive points

  • Culmination

  • Termination


Facets of operational art1
Facets of Operational Art Leadership Concepts

  • Synergy

    • Seek combinations of forces and actions to achieve concentrations in various dimensions, all culminating in attaining the assigned objective(s) in the shortest time possible and with minimum casualties

    • Example: Grant’s efforts will combine pressure on Vicksburg from both land and naval forces.

  • Simultaneity and depth

    • Place more demands on adversary forces than can be handled both in terms of time and space

    • Example: Grierson’s raid against the Southern Railroad east of Jackson will cause Pemberton to almost completely ignore Grant’s move down the west side of the Mississippi River.


Facets of operational art2
Facets of Operational Art Leadership Concepts

  • Anticipation

    • Remain alert for the unexpected and opportunities to exploit the situation

    • Example: Pemberton completely misjudges Grant’s intentions and fails to anticipate Grant’s crossing at Bruinsburg.

  • Balance

    • Maintain the force, its capabilities, and its operations in such a manner as to contribute to freedom of action and responsiveness

    • Example: Pemberton completely fails to achieve balance by being constantly distracted by Grant’s diversions.


Facets of operational art3
Facets of Operational Art Leadership Concepts

  • Leverage

    • Gain, maintain, and exploit advantages in combat power across all dimensions

    • Example: Grant’s siege of Vicksburg caused Pemberton to have to deal with not just military, but civilian considerations as well.

  • Timing and tempo

    • Conduct operations at a tempo and point in time that best exploits friendly capabilities and inhibits the adversary

    • Example: Once Grant crosses the Mississippi he moves with such speed that Pemberton is left paralyzed.


Facets of operational art4
Facets of Operational Art Leadership Concepts

  • Operational reach and approach

    • The distance over which military power can mass effects and be employed decisively

    • Example: Grant’s decision to cut loose from his base of supplies allows him to fight a war of maneuver.

  • Forces and functions

    • Focus on defeating either adversary forces or functions, or a combination of both

    • Example: Grant’s victory at Jackson isolates Pemberton from any potential support from Johnston. Grant effects both Confederate forces (reinforcements) and functions (logistics).


Facets of operational art5
Facets of Operational Art Leadership Concepts

  • Arranging operations

    • Achieve dimensional superiority by a combination of simultaneous and sequential operations

    • Phases: Deter/engage, Seize initiative, Decisive operations, Transition

    • Example: Grant’s preliminary attempts, his maneuver, his assaults on Vicksburg, and ultimately the siege combine to produce a logical line of operation.

  • Centers of gravity

    • Those characteristics, capabilities, or sources of power from which a military force derives its freedom of action, physical strength, or will to fight

    • Destroying or neutralizing adversary centers of gravity is the most direct path to victory

    • Example: Grant cuts Pemberton’s lines of communication to supplies and reinforcements.


Facets of operational art6
Facets of Operational Art Leadership Concepts

  • Direct versus indirect

    • To the extent possible, attack centers of gravity directly, but where direct attack means attacking into an opponent’s strength seek an indirect approach

    • Example: Grant’s preliminary attempts such as the Yazoo Pass are all indirect approaches that try to avoid directly confronting Vicksburg’s strong river defenses.

  • Decisive points

    • Usually geographic in nature, but can sometimes be key events or systems

    • Give a marked advantage to whoever controls them

    • Keys to attacking protected centers of gravity

    • Example: Victory at Champion Hill guarantees Grant’s success in the campaign by forcing Pemberton to withdraw to Vicksburg.


Facets of operational art7
Facets of Operational Art Leadership Concepts

  • Culmination

    • Point in time and space at which an attacker’s combat power no longer exceeds that of the defender or the defender no longer can preserve his force

    • Example: Grant starves Pemberton into submission through his siege.

  • Termination

    • Military operations typically conclude with attainment of the strategic ends for which the military force was committed, which then allows transition to other instruments of national power and agencies as the means to achieve broader goals

    • Example: The surrender of Vicksburg gives the North control of the Mississippi River. Grant agrees to parole the 30,000 Confederates so as not to encumber his lines of communication with prisoners and to conclude the siege before Johnston might arrive to support Pemberton.


Forms of maneuver

Forms of Maneuver Leadership Concepts


Forms of maneuver1
Forms of Maneuver Leadership Concepts

  • The five forms of maneuver are the

    • envelopment,

    • turning movement,

    • infiltration,

    • penetration, and

    • frontal attack.


Envelopment
Envelopment Leadership Concepts


Envelopment1
Envelopment Leadership Concepts

  • The envelopment is a form of maneuver in which an attacking force seeks to avoid the principal enemy defenses by seizing objectives to the enemy rear to destroy the enemy in his current positions.

  • Envelopments avoid the enemy front, where he is protected and can easily concentrate fires.

  • Single envelopments maneuver against one enemy flank; double envelopments maneuver against both. Either variant can develop into an encirclement.

  • Example: Gregg attempts an envelopment at Raymond but is confused and overwhelmed by McPherson’s larger force


Turning movement
Turning Movement Leadership Concepts


Turning movement1
Turning Movement Leadership Concepts

  • A turning movement is a form of maneuver in which the attacking force seeks to avoid the enemy's principal defensive positions by seizing objectives to the enemy rear and causing the enemy to move out of his current positions or divert major forces to meet the threat.

  • A major threat to his rear forces the enemy to attack or withdraw rearward, thus "turning" him out of his defensive positions.

  • Turning movements typically require greater depth than other forms of maneuver.

  • Example: Grant turns Grand Gulf by crossing at Bruinsburg and seizing Port Gibson


Infiltration
Infiltration Leadership Concepts


Infiltration1
Infiltration Leadership Concepts

  • An infiltration is a form of maneuver in which an attacking force conducts undetected movement through or into an area occupied by enemy forces to occupy a position of advantage in the enemy rear while exposing only small elements to enemy defensive fires

    • Typically, forces infiltrate in small groups and reassemble to continue their mission.

    • Infiltration rarely defeats a defense by itself. Commanders direct infiltrations to attack lightly defended positions or stronger positions from the flank and rear, to secure key terrain to support the decisive operation, or to disrupt enemy sustaining operations.

    • Example: Running the gauntlet (?) (Probably better described as a penetration)


Penetration
Penetration Leadership Concepts


Penetration1
Penetration Leadership Concepts

  • A penetration is a form of maneuver in which an attacking force seeks to rupture enemy defenses on a narrow front to disrupt the defensive system.

    • Commanders direct penetrations when enemy flanks are not assailable or time does not permit another form of maneuver. Successful penetrations create assailable flanks and provide access to enemy rear areas.

    • Because penetrations frequently are directed into the front of the enemy defense, they risk significantly more friendly casualties than envelopments, turning movements, and infiltrations.

    • Example: Porter successfully runs the gauntlet of the Vicksburg batteries and takes a position south of the city to support Grant’s operation.


Frontal attack
Frontal Attack Leadership Concepts


Frontal attack1
Frontal attack Leadership Concepts

  • The frontal attack is frequently the most costly form of maneuver, since it exposes the majority of the attackers to the concentrated fires of the defenders.

    • As the most direct form of maneuver, however, the frontal attack is useful for overwhelming light defenses, covering forces, or disorganized enemy resistance.

    • It is often the best form of maneuver for hasty attacks and meeting engagements, where speed and simplicity are essential to maintain tempo and the initiative.

    • Commanders may direct a frontal attack as a shaping operation and another form of maneuver as the decisive operation.

    • Example: Grant will make two failed frontal assaults on Vicksburg before resorting to a siege.


Maneuver and tempo of operations

1 May Leadership Concepts

12 May

14 May

16 May

17 May

Big

Black

River

Champion

Hill

Port

Gibson

Raymond

Jackson

Maneuver and Tempo of Operations

1862

1863

Oct

Nov

Dec

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

March

Down

River

End

TN/KY

Campaign

Siege

First Offensives

Bayou Expeditions

Campaign


General military strategic doctrinal operational and leadership concepts

N Leadership Concepts

0

Scale

(miles)

10

Yazoo River

Snyder’s (Haynes’)

Bluff

Milliken’s

Bend

Chickasaw Bayou

Young’s

Point

Vicksburg

Edwards

Champion Hill

Jackson

Raymond

Mississippi River

Big Black River

Vicksburg

Campaign Overview

Grand Gulf

Willow Springs

Port Gibson

Bruinsburg

Route of

Grant’s Army

Rodney


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New Carthage

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Milliken’s

Bend

SPT

SPT

Young’s

Point

March To Bruinsburg I

31 March-18 April


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10

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Point

March To Bruinsburg II

19-30 April

Rodney


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Campaign of Maneuver

1 May

Port Gibson


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Campaign of Maneuver

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Big Bayou Pierre


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SPT

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SPT

Campaign of Maneuver

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SPT

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Campaign of Maneuver

18 May


General military strategic doctrinal operational and leadership concepts

XX Leadership Concepts

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Railroad Redoubt

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Miles

1

Siege of Vicksburg

Fort Hill

Stockade Redan

3d Louisiana Redan


Mett tc

METT-TC Leadership Concepts


Mett tc1
METT-TC Leadership Concepts

  • Mission

  • Enemy

  • Terrain and Weather

  • Troops and Equipment

  • Time

  • Civilians


Mission
Mission Leadership Concepts

  • Seize Vicksburg in order to control the Mississippi River and separate the Confederacy in two


Enemy
Enemy Leadership Concepts

  • Pemberton

    • Five divisions totaling 43,000 effectives

  • Pemberton fell under Johnston’s Department of the West

    • Represents some potential for a relief force

  • No ironclads and only a few wooden gunboats


Terrain
Terrain Leadership Concepts

  • Vicksburg located astride the railroad that linked Shreveport, LA (and thus the three states west of the river) to the eastern transportation network

  • Line of bluffs that dominated the river favored defense

  • Northeast and west of Vicksburg was wetland that would inhibit offensive movement


Troops
Troops Leadership Concepts

  • Army

    • Grant has a maneuver force of ten divisions (44,000 effectives)

  • Navy

    • Porter’s Mississippi River Squadron has about 60 combat vessels of which 20 to 25 would support the Vicksburg operation at any one time


General military strategic doctrinal operational and leadership concepts
Time Leadership Concepts

  • Pemberton has ample time to prepare his defense

  • Grant needs to attack before his supplies run out and before Johnston can reinforce

  • Once the siege begins, time benefits the offense


Civilians
Civilians Leadership Concepts

  • About 5,000 live in Vicksburg

  • Pemberton is responsible for their well-being

  • Other civilians along the Mississippi River pose a guerrilla threat to the Federal Navy

  • Potential source of intelligence


Strategy

Strategy Leadership Concepts


Strategy1
Strategy Leadership Concepts

  • Strategy is the pursuit, protection, or advancement of national interests through the application of the instruments of power

  • Instruments of power (DIME)

    • Diplomatic

    • Informational

    • Military

    • Economic


Strategy2
Strategy Leadership Concepts

  • Strategy is about how (way or concept) leadership will use the power (means or resources) available to the state to exercise control over sets of circumstances and geographic locations to achieve objectives (ends) that support state interests

  • Strategy = Ends (objectives) + Ways (course of action) + Means (instruments)

    • Ways to employ means to achieve ends


Strategy3
Strategy Leadership Concepts

  • End

    • Deny Federal use of the Mississippi River

  • Way

    • Interdict river traffic at Vicksburg

  • Mean

    • Pemberton’s force at Vicksburg


Traditional military strategies
Traditional Military Strategies Leadership Concepts

  • Attrition

    • The reduction of the effectiveness of a force caused by loss of personnel and materiel

  • Exhaustion

    • The gradual erosion of a nation’s will or means to resist

  • Annihilation

    • Seeks the immediate destruction of the combat power of the enemy’s armed forces


Strategic leadership

Strategic Leadership Leadership Concepts


Strategic leadership skills
Strategic Leadership Skills Leadership Concepts

  • Interpersonal Skills

    • Communicating

    • Using Dialogue

    • Negotiating

    • Achieving Consensus

    • Building Staffs


Strategic leadership skills1
Strategic Leadership Skills Leadership Concepts

  • Conceptual Skills

    • Envisioning

    • Developing Frames of Reference

    • Dealing with Uncertainty and Ambiguity


Strategic leadership skills2
Strategic Leadership Skills Leadership Concepts

  • Technical Skills

    • Strategic Art

    • Leveraging Technology

    • Translating Political Goals into Military Objectives


Strategic leadership skills3
Strategic Leadership Skills Leadership Concepts

  • Interpersonal Skills

    • Communicating

      • “When you first reached the vicinity of Vicksburg, I never had any faith, except a general hope that you knew better than I, that the Yazoo Pass expedition, and the like, could succeed. When you got below, and took Port Gibson, Grand Gulf, and vicinity, I thought you should go down the river and join General Banks; and when you turned northward east of the Big Black, I feared it was a mistake. I now which to make the personal acknowledgement that you were right and I was wrong.”

        • Lincoln to Grant


Strategic leadership skills4
Strategic Leadership Skills Leadership Concepts

  • Interpersonal Skills

    • Using Dialogue

      • Pemberton prefers to command behind the scenes and has little direct communication with his soldiers or subordinate commanders

    • Negotiating

      • Grant and Porter are able to achieve Army-Navy cooperation in the absence of a hierarchical command relationship

    • Achieving Consensus

      • Pemberton’s superiors, Davis and Johnston, do not achieve consensus on the proper strategy and give Pemberton conflicting guidance

    • Building Staffs

      • Grant will draw great benefit from his logistical staff that will keep him resupplied after he “cuts loose” from his base


Strategic leadership skills5
Strategic Leadership Skills Leadership Concepts

  • Conceptual Skills

    • Envisioning

      • Success at Raymond convinces Grant to shift his decisive point from the Confederate railroads to Jackson, which will allow him to isolate Vicksburg from reinforcements.

    • Developing Frames of Reference

      • Pemberton brings from Charleston a dictum that he must not do anything to leave Vicksburg vulnerable.

    • Dealing with Uncertainty and Ambiguity

      • This is Pemberton’s chief failure. He is continually left guessing by Grant’s diversions and maneuver and is always a couple steps behind.


Strategic leadership skills6
Strategic Leadership Skills Leadership Concepts

  • Technical Skills

    • Strategic Art

      • Control of the Mississippi would separate the Confederacy into two halves and controlling Vicksburg would give the North control of the Mississippi

    • Leveraging Technology

      • At the time of the Vicksburg Campaign, the Confederacy has no ironclads. The Federal Mississippi River Squadron included thirteen ironclads.

    • Translating Political Goals into Military Objectives

      • The Anaconda Plan was rejected as a military strategy because it failed to meet the political objective for a quick, offensive war.


Impact of mexican war
Impact of Mexican War Leadership Concepts

  • Limited War

  • Turning Movement

  • Technology

  • Junior Officers


Limited war winfield scott
Limited War: Winfield Scott Leadership Concepts

  • Epitomized the professional officer

    • Served in War of 1812, brevetted to major general

    • Studied European tactics

    • Became general-in-chief in 1841

  • Selected by President Polk to lead a second major campaign in Mexico (Zachary Taylor’s was the first)


Limited war objective
Limited War: Objective Leadership Concepts

  • Objective as a principal of war

    • When undertaking any mission, commanders should have a clear understanding of the expected outcome and its impact

    • Commanders need to appreciate political ends and understand how the military conditions they achieve contribute to them.

  • Winfield Scott saw Mexico as a war of limited objectives, to be waged by limited means


Limited war objective1
Limited War: Objective Leadership Concepts

  • Based on this belief, Scott developed a largely political strategy

  • Believed that Mexican political life centered around Mexico City so completely that capturing the capital would paralyze the country and oblige the Mexican government to sue for peace in order to remain a government at all

  • Therefore his objective was to capture Mexico City, not to destroy the Mexican army


Limited war treatment of civilians
Limited War: Treatment of Civilians Leadership Concepts

  • Scott conducted his campaign with strict regard for the rights of the Mexican citizens, making every effort to confine bloodshed and suffering to the Mexican army rather than the civilian population.

  • He scrupulously regulated his soldiers’ conduct and interaction with Mexican civilians, reducing contact to the minimum necessary for the sustenance of his army and the morale of his troops.


Limited war treatment of civilians1
Limited War: Treatment of Civilians Leadership Concepts

  • “But, my dear Sir, our militia & volunteers, if a tenth of what is said to be true, have committed atrocities—horrors—in Mexico, sufficient to make Heaven weep, & every American, of Christian morals, blush for his country. Murder, robbery & rape of mothers & daughters, in the presence of the tied up males of their families, have been common all along the Rio Grande…. Truly it would seem unchristian & cruel to let loose upon any people—even savages—such unbridled persons—freebooters, &c., &c….”

    • Scott writing the Secretary of War after visiting Taylor’s army (Weigley, “History,” 187-188).


Limited war
Limited War Leadership Concepts

  • Scott will carry his ideas about limited war into the Civil War with his Anaconda Plan

  • Many Federals, such as George McClellan, will advocate a strategy of conciliation toward the Confederacy

  • Such an approach will be rejected and the Civil War will become increasingly total

    • Pope’s General Orders

    • Emancipation Proclamation

    • Conscription

    • Suspension of some civil liberties

    • Sherman’s March to the Sea


Limited war changing times
Limited War: Changing Times Leadership Concepts

  • “… while Scott was the preeminent military strategist of the first half of the nineteenth century, he occupied a lonely plateau in more senses than one: that at the zenith of his powers he was already a museum piece, a soldier of an age gone by whose perceptions of war and strategy had little influence on most of the very West Point graduates whose service in Mexico he so fulsomely praised, because the young graduates inhabited a new world of very different values from Scott’s, the military world of Napoleon” (Russell Weigley, American Way of War, 76).


Turning movement2
Turning Movement Leadership Concepts

  • Scott conducts amphibious landing at Vera Cruz and must then move by land to Mexico City along a predictable, well-defended avenue of approach

  • Wants to avoid frontal assaults by maneuver


Turning movement3
Turning Movement Leadership Concepts

  • Maneuver

    • As both an element of combat power and a principle of war, maneuver concentrates and disperses combat power to place and keep the enemy at a disadvantage

    • Achieves results that would otherwise be more costly

    • Keeps enemies off balance by making them confront new problems and new dangers faster than they can deal with them

  • The form of maneuver that Scott is going to rely on in Mexico is the turning movement


Turning movement4
Turning Movement Leadership Concepts

  • In a turning movementthe attacking force seeks to avoid the enemy's principal defensive positions by seizing objectives to the enemy rear and causing the enemy to move out of his current positions or divert major forces to meet the threat.

  • A major threat to his rear forces the enemy to attack or withdraw rearward, thus "turning" him out of his defensive positions.


Turning movement cerro gordo
Turning Movement: Cerro Gordo Leadership Concepts

  • Scott wants to avoid a costly frontal assault so he has Robert E. Lee and other engineers recon a possible route around Santa Anna’s flank

  • Lee finds a way to outflank the defenders, and Scott executes the first of several flanking movements in his march to Mexico City.


Turning movements and the civil war
Turning Movements and the Civil War Leadership Concepts

  • “The Mexican War created an informal, unwritten tactical doctrine—to turn the enemy.” (Archer Jones)

    • Civil War battles and campaigns that involved turning movements include the Peninsula Campaign, Second Manassas, and Vicksburg

  • Nonetheless the Civil War will also include many costly frontal attacks such as Fredericksburg and Pickett’s Charge


Technology rifles
Technology: Rifles Leadership Concepts

  • Two things that make these frontal attacks so costly are the rifled musket and the Minie Ball

    • A few volunteer units like the Mississippi Rifles had rifles in Mexico, but the Regular Army stubbornly held to smoothbore muskets

At Buena Vista, Jefferson Davis commanded the Mississippi Rifles to “Stand Fast, Mississippians!”


Technology changing times
Technology: Changing Times Leadership Concepts

  • By the time of the Civil War, the rifled musket and the Minie ball will cause a change in military tactics

    • The defense will gain strength relative to the offense

    • Artillery will loose its ability to safely advance close to the enemy and breach holes in defenses

    • Close-order formations will become dangerously vulnerable


Technology other examples
Technology: Other Examples Leadership Concepts

  • Steam-powered ships

  • Ironclads

  • Telegraph

  • Railroads

  • Balloons


Junior officers rehearsal for the civil war
Junior Officers: Rehearsal for the Civil War Leadership Concepts

  • Approximately 194 Federal generals and 142 Confederate generals previously served in Mexico

  • Lee, Jackson, Hill, Pickett, Longstreet, Beauregard, Bragg, etc

  • Meade, Grant, Kearney, McClellan, Hooker, Pope, McDowell, etc


Junior officers impact of west pointers
Junior Officers: Impact of West Pointers Leadership Concepts

  • In 1817, Sylvanus Thayer replaced Captain Alden Partridge as superintendent of West Point and began reversing the damage Partridge had done.

  • Thayer broadened and standardized the curriculum, established a system to measure class standing, organized classes around small sections, improved cadet discipline, created the office of commandant of cadets, and improved military training.

“The Father of the Military Academy”


Junior officers impact of west pointers1
Junior Officers: Impact of West Pointers Leadership Concepts

  • By the time of the Mexican War, Thayer’s reforms had produced a generation of men who would fill the junior officers’ ranks in Mexico.

  • These lieutenants and captains stood in sharp contrast to the older officers who had not benefited from a systematic military education and training.

  • The impact of Thayer and West Point was readily apparent in Mexico.

West Point was founded in 1802 and was instrumental in training engineers in the 19th Century


Junior officers impact of west pointers2
Junior Officers: Impact of West Pointers Leadership Concepts

  • Winfield Scott called his West Pointers his “little cabinet”

  • Scott was unwavering in his acknowledgement of West Pointers declaring,

    • “I give it as my fixed opinion that but for our graduated cadets the war between the United States and Mexico might, and probably would, have lasted some four or five years, with, in its first half, more defeats than victories falling to our share, whereas in two campaigns we conquered a great country and a peace without the loss of a single battle or skirmish.”


West pointers in the civil war
West Pointers in the Civil War Leadership Concepts

  • West Pointers will play a key role in the Civil War

    • 151 Confederate and 294 Federal generals were West Point graduates

    • Of the Civil War’s 60 major battles, West Pointers commanded both sides in 55

    • A West Pointer commanded on one side in the other five


Grant and pemberton
Grant and Pemberton Leadership Concepts

  • “A more conscientious, honorable man never lived. I remember when a general order was issued that none of the junior officers should be allowed horses during marches. Mexico is not an easy country to march in. Young officers not accustomed to it soon got foot-sore. This was quickly discovered, and they were found lagging behind. But the order was not revoked, yet a verbal permit was accepted, and nearly all of them remounted. Pemberton alone said, No, he would walk, as the order was still extant not to ride, and he did walk, though suffering intensely the while.”

    • Grant’s recollection of Pemberton in Mexico


Grant and pemberton1
Grant and Pemberton Leadership Concepts

  • Grant claimed that his recollection of this incident would convince him at Vicksburg that Pemberton would not easily yield.

    • “This I thought of all the time [Pemberton] was in Vicksburg and I outside of it; and I knew he would hold on to the last.”

Grant as a lieutenant in Mexico


General military strategic doctrinal operational and leadership concepts
Next Leadership Concepts

  • Federal Forces

  • Confederates Forces

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