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Unit 4B. Diffusion of Ideas & Systems: 600-1450 The Middle Ages in Africa & Asia. Unit 4B, Lesson 1. Key Understanding – Interaction of different religions leads to cultural blending or conflict due to common values and beliefs or differences. Islam - Background.

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unit 4b

Unit 4B

Diffusion of Ideas & Systems: 600-1450

The Middle Ages in Africa & Asia

unit 4b lesson 1
Unit 4B, Lesson 1
  • Key Understanding – Interaction of different religions leads to cultural blending or conflict due to common values and beliefs or differences.
islam background
Islam - Background
  • Muhammad – born around A.D. 570; founder of Islam
  • Muslims – those who worship Allah and recognize Muhammad as the last Prophet
  • Mecca – the Holy City of the Islamic faith
islam background1
Islam - Background
  • Allah – Monotheistic deity; God of Abraham; Yahweh
  • Hijra – pilgrimage to Mecca that each Muslim is required to take within their lifetime
islam background2
Islam - Background
  • Qu’ran/Koran – Book-writings of the prophet Muhammad
  • Jihad – Holy struggle; expansion of Islam and Islamic control
islam background3
Islam - Background
  • Conversions – conquered people were allowed to keep their religions; many converted (often to avoid taxes)
  • “People of the Book” – Christians and Jews – their faith was “incomplete” because they did not accept Muhammad; they worked as officials, scholars, bureaucrats
islam background4
Islam - Background
  • Interaction – Set-up trade networks between Europe, Asia, and North Africa; cultures blend – achievements in art and science
islam divides
Islam Divides
  • When Muhammad died there was conflict over who his successor (called the Caliph) would be.
  • Shiite Muslims – believed that only Muhammad’s descendants could be caliphs.
  • Sunni Muslims – followed a new caliph (the Umayyad Caliphate).
the abbasid caliphate
The Abbasid Caliphate
  • The Umayyad Caliphs were replaced by the Abbasid Caliphs in A.D. 750.
the abbasid caliphate1
The Abbasid Caliphate
  • Both the Umayyads and the Abbasids fought a holy war, called aJihadto expand Islam.
    • Fatimid dynasty set up in North Africa
    • Muslims control the Maghrib along the Mediterranean coast by 670
    • Berbers, who had originally been Christian and Jewish, convert to Islam in the 600s.
    • The empire expanded from the Indus Valley to Spain.
    • Expansion was halted in Europe at the Battle of Tours.
the abbasid caliphate2
The Abbasid Caliphate
  • The Arab capital was moved from Damascus to Baghdad in 762.
    • Within a century Baghdad’s population was over a million people
    • Included a citadel and the “House of Wisdom”
the abbasid caliphate3
The Abbasid Caliphate
  • Decline
    • The Caliphate declined when invaders entered the empire.
    • South – Berbers and Bedouins from Africa swept across Libya and Tunisia; they destroyed civilization in North Africa
the abbasid caliphate4
The Abbasid Caliphate
  • Decline
    • North – European Crusaders entered Palestine in 1096.
    • East – Turks and Mongols invade and convert to Islam.
the ottoman empire
The Ottoman Empire
  • Muslims conquer Constantinople in 1453 and establish the Ottoman Empire
  • The Ottomans were a nomadic group of Turkish people from Central Asia.
entertainment
Entertainment
  • Poetry, music, dance
  • Chess, dice, backgammon
  • Polo, archery, fencing, horse racing
interaction
Interaction
  • Paper making brought in from China
  • Translated Hippocrates, Galen, Euclid, Ptolemy, Plato, Aristotle
science and math
Science and Math
  • Advances in algebra and geometry
  • Continued astronomical observations
  • Doctors discovered that blood moves to and from the heart
arts and crafts
Arts and Crafts
  • Textile industry
  • Elaborate leather work and rugs