Mr. Burton 10.3 Paraguay, Uruguay, and Argentina
History of Uruguay, Paraguay, and Argentina • European immigrants have dominated the history and culture of Argentina. • Argentina’s capital, Buenos Aires, plays a large role in the country’s government and economy today. • Uruguay has been influenced by its neighbors. • Paraguay is the most rural country in the region.
Gauchos, Argentine cowboys, herded cattle and horses on the open grasslands of the Pampas. • 1500s: Spanish came to Argentina to find silver and gold • Very few natives remain. • 1800s: Argentina gained independence, but violence and instability killed or drove away the Indians.
Modern Argentina • 1970s: During the “Dirty War,” the government tortured and killed people believed to disagree with the government. • New Immigrants arrived from Italy, Germany, and Spain.
Buenos Aries and Pampas • Capital • Second largest urban area in South America • Home to most of Argentina’s industry • Its location near coast and Pampas has contributed to its economic development. • Most developed agricultural region • About 11 percent of labor force works in agriculture. • Exports: beef, wheat, and corn
History of Uruguay • Its capital, Montevideo, close to Buenos Aires • Portugal conquered Uruguay, but Spain took over in 1770s. • Few Uruguayan Indians remained. • 1825: Independence • Military governments have ruled off and on. • Today it is a democracy.
People of Uruguay • Most are descended from Europeans. • About 12 percent mestizo, Indians, or African • Mostly Roman-Catholic, Spanish- speaking • More than 90 percent live in urban areas. • High literacy rate and many good jobs
Economy of Uruguay • More than half of Uruguay’s trade is with Brazil and Argentina. • Exports beef grown on inland plains • Some limited industry • Few mineral resources • Hydroelectric power is a main source of energy.
History of Paraguay • Paraguay is landlocked, or surrounded by land with no direct access to the ocean. • Paraguay River divides country into eastern farmland and western ranches. • Mid-1530s: Spanish claimed country. • 1811: Independence • Today it is a democracy.
People of Paraguay • About 95 percent are mestizos. • Rest are Indians or people of European descent. • Two official languages: Spanish and Guarani, an Indian language • Most people are Roman Catholic. • Asunción is capital and largest city.
Economy of Paraguay • Wealth and government controlled by a few rich families. • Nearly half of the country’s workers are farmers. • Many farmers grow just enough to feed themselves. • Small businesses, but not much industry • Promising resources like hydroelectricity