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Ultra-high energy neutinos generated in GZK(Greisen- Zatsepin - Kuzmin ) Process PowerPoint Presentation
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Measurement of a phase of a radio wave reflected from rock salt and ice irradiated by an electron beam for detection of ultra-high-energy neutrinos.

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slide1

Measurement of a phase of a radio wave reflected from rock salt and ice irradiated by an electron beam for detection of ultra-high-energy neutrinos

  • Masami Chiba, Toshio. Kamijo, Takahiro Tanikawa, Hiroyuki Yano, Fumiaki Yabuki, Osamu Yasuda, Yuichi Chikashige*, Tadashi Kon*, Yutaka Shimizu*, Shunichirou Watanabe*,Michiaki Utsumi**, and Masatoshi Fujii***
      • Tokyo Metropolitan University,
      • Seikei University*, Tokai University**, Shimane University***
  • Talk at ARENA2012 – June 20, 2012
ultra high energy neutinos generated in gzk greisen zatsepin kuzmin process

Log E(dN/dE) [km-2 yr-1 (2pi sr)-1]

Ultra-high energy neutinos generated in GZK(Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin)Process

p +  (2.7K)+ n + +

p e-e

+

e +e

Ultra-high-energy cosmic ray is generated in

Active Galactic Nuclei

Gamma-ray Burst etc.

Protons (E>4*1019eV )

GZK n

Galactic

GZK threshold

・ Detection of cosmic ν(1016~1021eV)

using a rock salt formation or the Antarctic ice sheet

  • The flux is extremely low (≒1/ km2・day), we need a gigantic mass of the detection medium of 50 Gt(≒ 10 events/year) a million times as large as Super Kamiokande.
electron beam irradiation on ice or rock salt
Electron beam irradiation on ice or rock salt
  • ・Cockcroft-Walton accelerator located at Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency

Electron beam

10cm

Cooling box

30cm

Electron beam

Range 1cminice

Coaxial tube

coaxial tube and radio wave reflection

Electron beam

2MeV1mA

Cooling box

Coaxial tube

20mm φ

Dry ice

Coaxial tube and radio-wave reflection
  • ・Coaxial tube was filled with ice or rock salt.
  • ・2MeV electron beam irradiate
  • the open end of the coaxial tube.
  • (4 J/s = 2×1019 eV/s at 1mA)
  • ・Temperature rise(ΔT)
  • → Increase of refractive index(Δn)
  • → Radio wave reflection changes

Temperature rise

Thermo

couple

435MHz

Radio wave

Ice or rock salt

power reflection rate with a change of refractive index
Power reflection rate with a change of refractive index

Matzler, C and Wegmuller, U., J. Appl. Phys. 80, 1623-1630(1987)

Matsuoka,T, Fujita, S and Mae, S., J. Appl Phys. 80,5884-5890(1996)

n

・for ice and rock salt

Power reflection rate(Γ) is proportional to ΔT2

Fresnel equation

: Irradiation

Γ=

electronics
Electronics

Rb oscillator:10MHz

435.000 000 00MHz

-10dBm = 10-4 W

Oscillator

SMF100A

Circulator

Electron beam

Coaxial tube

Splitter

Null method

Thermo-couple

Spectrum

analyzer

Specat2

Variable

Phase shifter

combiner

Directional

coupler

NI LabVIEW system

Directional

coupler

PC

Detector

Amplifier

DAC

ADC

PC

Record phase

Real-time

spectrum analyzer

RSA3303B

slide8

Amplitude and Phase

Amplitude measurement

  • Before irradiation: automatic tuning of is ON

= +

  • reference reflected wave

Oscillator

435MHz

Circulator

  • At irradiation: automatic tuning OFF

Splitter

= +

reflected

  • reference reflected wave

= - 1)

reference

Variable

phase shifter

Combiner

=2

Automatic tuning

LabVIEW

system

Phase measurement

Before and at irradiation:

automatic tuning ON

Detector

Splitter

RSA3303B

Due to open end of coaxial tube

Reference

Reflected wave

Is measured

then

slide9

Irradiation room over the wall

Receiver

Rboscillator

Realtimespectroanalyzer

Oscillator

NI ELVIS

LabVIEW controller

frequency domain spectrum
Frequency domain spectrum
  • Rejection of noises from electric power source of 50 Hz.

Data analysis of Real Time Spectrometer

  • Time domain data of 1024points×5 for 640 ms
  • 1 datum for 128ms
  • Conversion of time domain to frequency domain by FFT
slide12

Calculation of phase difference of reflected wave

by a model (based on Telegrapher’s equation)

Electron beam

10mm

Axial tube

Phase difference Δφ between Γ1 and Γ2

summary
Summary

・We found radio wave reflection from ice as well as rock salt with electron beam irradiation.

・Constructing an automatic-negative-feedback circuit in which variable phase shifter was tuned to get the null output, we measured the phase of the reflected-radio wave.

・The reflected amplitude was reproduced by the measured phase and was explained by a model in which the temperature is taken into account.

・Due to the long memory time, a stand-alone-GZK-neutrino detector could be constructed with a peak power of 1 GW (Equivalent Isotropic Radiation Power) radar supplied by a phased array antenna on a surface.

・Rock salt formation, Antarctic ice sheet and the moon crust would be candidates for the detector media.

・A new radiation detector “Radar Chamber” is established utilizing for all dielectric media. It is not only for radiation detection but also for other purposes using materials with inhomogeneous refractive index in space and time.