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Vocabulary-write on p. 47 of your Inbook. Hieroglyphics-a system of writing using symbols (hieroglyphs) developed around 3000 B.C. E Dynasty-a family or group that rules for several generations Papyrus-a tough water plant used to make paper and rope in ancient times

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vocabulary write on p 47 of your inbook
Vocabulary-write on p. 47 of your Inbook
  • Hieroglyphics-a system of writing using symbols (hieroglyphs) developed around 3000 B.C. E
  • Dynasty-a family or group that rules for several generations
  • Papyrus-a tough water plant used to make paper and rope in ancient times
  • Pyramid-a huge, triangular-shaped monument of ancient Egypt built around a tomb
  • Artisan-a craftsperson
  • Pharaoh-an ancient Egyptian leader
ancient egypt
Ancient Egypt
  • Main Idea: Ancient Egyptians used their geography to build a stable and prosperous civilization whose achievements in science and technology would last for thousands of years.
i geography
I. Geography

A. Three favorable conditions encouraged agriculture


a. The Nile River – 4,100 miles- longest river in the world

b. Seasonal flooding deposits silt making soil fertile

c. Mediterranean Sea- provides resources and transportation routes

i geography1
I. Geography

2. TOPOGRAGHY (shape of the land)

a. Nile River Valley

i. Fertile delta

ii. Flat land for farming, floodplain

b. Surrounding deserts provide protection from enemy attack

c. Mediterranean Sea

i. ports and harbors = trade and transportation

ii. source of food

i geography2
I. Geography

3. VEGETATION (plant life)

a. Plants rare in desert, but plentiful in river valley

b. Papyrus = tough plant that grows in marshes used for rope and paper

c. Reeds for baskets and hut roofs

B. Stable food supply and protected area encourages development of civilization

1. Time for innovation

a. Encourages communication

b. Trade develops

i. Use of waterways as “roads”

ii technology
II. Technology

A. Architecture – “Great Builders”

1. Pyramids- tombs for rulers stone and capped in gold

a. The Great Pyramid – only remaining ancient wonder of the world

b. Built to show off power

2. The Great Sphinx – mythological- lion body, human head = symbol of wisdom

3. Dams and irrigation systems

ii technology1
II. Technology

C. Math and Science

1. Astronomy – 12 month calendar/30 days and 5 days of feasts =365 days

2. Math - based on 10 and use of geometry

iii government
III. Government

A. Structure

1. Villages merge into cities

2. Egypt divides into 2 kingdoms

a. Upper Egypt

b. Lower Egypt

Lower Egypt

Upper Egypt

iii government1
III. Government

3. Unification

a. Menes (ruler) unites both Egypts

b. Creates capital city at Memphis

c. Establishes first dynasty

4. Pharaohs – absolute ruler

a. Chief judge

b. Religious chief – living son of Sun God, Re

c. Commander –in – chief

i. Maintained powerful armies

ii. Defeated peoples paid tribute ( riches) and/or became slaves

iv history three kingdoms
IV. History - Three Kingdoms

A. Old Kingdom (2700-2200 BC) – “Age of Pyramids”

1. Pharaohs set up strong central governments

B. Middle Kingdom (2200-1800 BC) – “Period of Unification”

1. Time of great achievements

C. New Kingdom (1600-1100 BC) – “Golden Age”

1. Time of peace and stability

v historical figures
V. Historical Figures

A. Pharaoh Khufu – 2551-2528 BC (Old Kingdom)

1. Built the Great Pyramid

B. Pharaoh Senusret- 1971-1926 BC (Middle Kingdom)

1. Craftspeople built religious architecture, temples and shrines

C. Pharaoh Hatshepsut - 1473-1458 BC ( New Kingdom)

1. 1st female pharaoh- wore men’s clothes and sometimes fake beard

2. Promoter of trade

a. spread Egyptian influence


Great Pyramids built by Khufu

White Temple build by Senusret I


v historical figures1
V. Historical Figures

D. Pharaoh Ramses II - 1240-1224 BC ( New Kingdom)

1. Military leader – “Ramses the Great”

a. Captain in Egyptian army at age 10

b. Famous battles vs the Hittites

c. World’s first peace treaty

2. Over 100 wives and more than 100 children

3. Built more monuments and temples than any other pharaoh

vi culture religion
VI. Culture- Religion

A. Polytheistic

1. Only priests can carry out rituals in temples

2. Re, Sun God and god of living

3. Osiris – God of the Underworld, the dead

4. Isis - Wife of Osiris, protector of children

5. Horus – God of Sky and Light

6. Hapi – God of the Nile

7. Seth- God of Storms

8. Anubis – God of Embalming and Cemeteries

vi culture religion1
VI. Culture- Religion

B. Afterlife

1. Each person’s soul called a ka could live after death

2. Kajudged by Osiris

3. Body must be preserved to look as it did in life

a. Mummification –organs removed, embalmed, and wrapped in linen

b. Sarcophagus- wooden box in stone coffin

c. Pyramid tomb for rulers filled with riches for afterlife

4. Average Egyptian not buried in a pyramid

vii social classes
VII. Social Classes

A. Pharaoh

B. Government Officials

1. Vizier- had most power, supervisor of other officials, acted as chief judge

2. Treasurer-collect taxes

a. Economic system not based on money, but goods

3. General of the armies

a. War, national security, and forming alliances

b. Lived lives of luxury – fancy banquets with entertainment

vii social classes1
VII. Social Classes

C. Priests

1. Only ones to perform rituals at temples

2. Women as priestess

D. Scribes ( writers)

1.Men only – boys went to strict schools 12 years to learn hieroglyphics

2. Record keeping for government and religion

a. Census ( counting the people)

b. Taxes ( not paid with money, but goods)

c. Laws

vii social classes2
VII. Social Classes

E. Artisans ( craftsmen)

1. Stone carvers, carpenters, jewelers, leatherworks, painters, potters, weavers

2. Hundreds at a time work on royal projects

3. Viewed as little more than common laborer

F. Peasants

1. Lowest and largest class

2. Unskilled workers and farmers

a. Lives revolved around the 3 seasons of the Nile

i. Flooding

ii. Planting

iii. Harvesting

b. When not farming, served as workers for building

c. Paid taxes in goods or beaten

viii women
VIII. Women

A. More freedoms than most women in ancient world

a. Own land and run businesses

ix how do we know
IX. How Do We Know

A. King Tut (Tutankhamen) - 1361- 1351 BCE

1. 1922-Howard Carter finds King Tut’s tomb

2. Artifacts teach us about ancient Egypt