Preventing communicable diseases
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Preventing Communicable Diseases. Physical and Chemical Barriers. Skin- first line of defense Few pathogens can get through the first layers skin cells Tears and saliva- contain enzymes that destroy pathogens

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Physical and chemical barriers
Physical and Chemical Barriers

  • Skin- first line of defense

    • Few pathogens can get through the first layers skin cells

  • Tears and saliva- contain enzymes that destroy pathogens

  • Mucous membranes- produce mucous, a sticky substance that traps pathogens and helps dispose of them

    • Line mouth, nose, bronchial tubes, and others


Preventing communicable diseases


Immune system
Immune System respiratory system

  • Network of cells, tissues, organs, and chemicals that fight of pathogens

    The Inflammatory Response

  • A reaction to tissue damage caused by injury or infection

  • Blood vessels around the injury or infection expand to allow more blood to the area



Preventing communicable diseases


Specific defenses
Specific Defenses nerves

  • Specific defenses react to an invasion as a result of the body’s ability to recognize certain pathogens and destroy them.

  • Immune response= immunity= the state of being protected against a particular disease.

  • Your immune system has a “memory”


Preventing communicable diseases


Preventing communicable diseases

  • If memories cells recognize the antigens of a former invader certain white blood cells, B cells, make cells to stop it

    • Antibodies- acts against a specific antigen, destroys or blocks pathogens from entering cells

    • Killer T cells- attack and destroy infected body cells

  • Ex: If you have had the measles or a vaccination your body remembers antigens

  • If measles enter again antibodies will attack immediately


Active immunity
Active Immunity certain white blood cells, B cells, make cells to stop it

  • Occurs when your body develops antibodies for a specific pathogen

  • Natural active immunity- when you are exposed to invading pathogens

  • Artificial active immunity- antibodies develop in response to a vaccine

  • Vaccine- dead or weakened pathogens that are injected into the body to stimulate the immune response


Preventing communicable diseases

  • Active immunity can last certain white blood cells, B cells, make cells to stop ita lifetime for some pathogens

  • Other pathogens require repeating immunizations (vaccine)


Passive immunity
Passive Immunity certain white blood cells, B cells, make cells to stop it

  • Receiving antibodies from another person or animal

  • Passed from mother to child during pregnancy and nursing

  • From injection of antibodies that were produced by animal are human that is immune to disease.

  • This type of immunity is short lived


Care of the immune system
Care of the Immune System certain white blood cells, B cells, make cells to stop it

  • Eat balanced diet

  • Drink water

  • Get plenty of rest

    • Fatigue reduces the effective ness of immune system

  • Manage stress

  • Avoid sharing

  • Keep immunizations up to date

  • Avoid sexual contact- some STDs destroy immune system


Four types of vaccines
Four types of Vaccines certain white blood cells, B cells, make cells to stop it

  • Live-virus- from pathogens made in lab under conditions to cause the pathogen to lose some disease causing property

    • Measles, mumps, rubella and chicken pox

  • Killed virus- from dead pathogens

    • Still stimulated immune response

    • Flu, hepatitis A, rabies, and cholera


Preventing communicable diseases


Immunizations for all
Immunizations for All certain white blood cells, B cells, make cells to stop it

  • A person who is vaccinated not only protects themselves but those around them

    • You will not spread the disease to other

  • Keep immunization up to date

    • Tetanus

    • Diphtheria

    • Pertussis (whooping cough)

    • Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR)

    • Chicken pox

    • Human Papillomavirus HPV

  • Most high schools and colleges require some of these