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Human evolution. Chapter 34. Humans???. Archonta. 65 mya Small arboreal (tree-dwelling) mammals Large eyes Insect eating Nocturnal Gave rise to bats, tree shrews & primates. Primates. 1. Grasping fingers & toes Opposable thumb 2. Binocular vision Eyes are shifted in front

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human evolution

Human evolution

Chapter 34

archonta
Archonta
  • 65 mya
  • Small arboreal (tree-dwelling) mammals
  • Large eyes
  • Insect eating
  • Nocturnal
  • Gave rise to bats, tree shrews & primates
primates
Primates
  • 1. Grasping fingers & toes
  • Opposable thumb
  • 2. Binocular vision
  • Eyes are shifted in front
  • 2 fields of vision help with depth perception
primates1
Primates
  • Initially insect eating
  • Teeth adapted to eat plants
  • Fewer number of teeth
  • Snout length began to get smaller
primates2
Primates
  • Split into 2 groups
  • 40 million years ago
  • 1. Prosimians “before monkey”
  • Common in NA, Europe, Asia & Africa
  • lemurs, lorises and tarsiers
  • Increased visual acuity
  • Fruit, leaves & flowers
primates3
Primates
  • Lemurs & lorises
  • Madagascar, Africa, southern Asia
  • Tarsiers
  • Small nocturnal tree-dwellers
  • Southeast Asia
primates4
Primates
  • 2. Anthropoids
  • Monkeys, apes, humans
  • Diurnal: active during the day
  • Feeding fruits & leaves
  • Color vision evolved-daytime foraging
  • Expanded cortex for improved senses
anthropoids
Anthropoids
  • Oldest known anthropoid fossils
  • About 45 mya
  • Supports Tarsiers are prosimians
  • Most closely related to anthropoids
anthropoids1
Anthropoids
  • Live in groups
  • Complex social interactions
  • Care for young for extended time
  • Nurturing development of brain
anthropoids2
Anthropoids
  • New World monkeys (Americas)
  • 30 mya migrated to South America
  • Isolated
  • Arboreal (tree-dwelling)
  • Flat spreading noses
  • Prehensile tails
  • Helps hanging in trees
anthropoids3
Anthropoids
  • Old world monkeys
  • Ground dwelling
  • Some arboreal
  • Nostrils come together
  • Noses point down
  • Toughened pads of skin to sit upon
  • No prehensile tails
old world monkeys
Old world monkeys
  • Baboons, mandrills, macaque
anthropoids4
Anthropoids
  • 25 mya
  • Hominoids (human line)
  • Branched from old world monkeys
  • 1. Hominins (humans)
  • 2. Ape group
  • Gibbons, Orangutans, Gorilla, and Chimpanzees
slide33
Apes
  • Larger brain than monkeys
  • Lack tails
  • Long arms & short legs
  • Most larger than monkeys
  • Except Gibbon
  • Gibbons & orangutans are arboreal
slide34
Apes
  • Gorillas & chimpanzees highly social
  • Behavior more adaptable
  • Spread over Africa & Asia
  • None in NA & SA
slide36
Apes
  • Chimpanzee split from common ancestor about 6 mya
  • Genes of human & chimpanzees similar
  • Shares 98.6% of DNA
  • Human Hgb only one aa different
compare apes to hominins
Compare Apes to hominins
  • Common ancestor arboreal climber
  • Hominins bipedal
  • Walking upright
  • Apes are knuckle walkers
  • Support weight on fingers
compare apes to hominins1
Compare Apes to hominins
  • Vertebral column more curved
  • Spinal cord exits at bottom of the skull
  • Rather than the back
  • Pelvis is more bowl shaped
  • Pelvis bones curve forward to support more weight
  • Legs are longer than arms
  • support more weight
compare apes to hominins2
Compare Apes to hominins
  • Larger brain
  • Capable of language
  • Manufacture & use tools
  • Reduced jawbones & jaw muscles
  • Shorter digestive tract
primates5
Primates
  • Prosimians
  • Anthropoids
  • 1. New world monkeys
  • 2. Old world monkeys
  • 3. Hominoids
    • Apes (Gibbons, Orangutans, Gorilla, Chimpanzee)
    • Hominins
paleoanthropology
Paleoanthropology
  • Study of human evolution
  • Misconceptions
  • 1. Ancestors were chimpanzees
  • Chimpanzees & Hominins
  • 2 divergent branches of hominoid tree
hominins
Hominins
  • 2. Lineage straight line to Homo sapiens
  • Multi branched bush
hominins1
Hominins
  • 3. Upright posture & enlarged brain came together
  • Upright position came first
  • Enlarged brain coming second
  • Mosaic evolution:
  • Different features evolved at different rates
hominins2
Hominins
  • Why upright?
  • Tools found until 2.5 mya
  • Faster/less energy
  • Pick fruits/carry food
  • See over tall grass
hominins3
Hominins
  • 10 mya climate became drier/cooler
  • Savannas & grasslands
  • More time walking in open habitats
  • Less time in trees
hominins4
Hominins
  • Brain size tripled
  • 400-450 cm3 to about 1,300 cm3 in modern humans
  • Reduced size difference between sexes
  • Gorilla & orangutan males 2X heavier than females
  • Humans average male is 1.2X heavier
hominins5
Hominins
  • Two major groups of Hominins
  • Genus Homo (3-7 species)
  • Genus Australopithecus
  • Latin australo, meaning “southern”
  • Greek pithecus meaning “ape”
  • Approximately 7 species
  • Older genus-smaller brains
australopithecus
Australopithecus
  • 1924 first hominins fossil found
  • South Africa
  • Skull 2.8 million years old
  • A. africanus
  • Walked fully erect
  • Human-like hands & teeth
  • Brain 1/3 size of a modern human
australopithecus1
Australopithecus
  • “Lucy”
  • 1974-fossil discovered
  • Afar region of Ethiopia
  • A.afarensis
  • 40% complete skeleton
  • 3.24 mya
australopithecus2
Australopithecus
  • Pelvis shape-female
  • Leg bones-upright
  • Teeth-hominins
  • Head shaped like an ape
  • Stood approximately 1 meter tall
  • Brain no larger than a chimpanzee
australopithecus3
Australopithecus
  • A. robustus
  • Second stockier skeleton discovered
  • Massive teeth & jaw
  • A. Boisei (after Charles Boise)
  • Even more stocky- 2 million yrs old
older hominins
Older hominins
  • 2002
  • Earliest hominins
  • Dated 6-7 million years old
older hominins1
Older hominins
  • 1994 Ethiopia
  • Discovered complete fossil skeleton
  • 4.4 mya
  • More ape like
  • Bipedal
  • New genus
  • Ardipithecus ramidus
  • (ardi means “ground”, ramid means “root”)
slide63
Homo
  • 1960
  • East Africa
  • Homo habilis- “handy man”
  • Fossils of earliest genus Homo.
  • 2.5 to 1.6 mya
  • Found with tools
slide64
Homo
  • H. ergaster “workman”
  • Fossils date 1.9 to 1.5 mya
  • Larger brain (900cm3)
  • Longer slender legs
  • Hip joints-walking
  • Fingers short & straight
  • Early ancestor to later species of Homo
slide65
Homo
  • H. ergaster
  • More sophisticated tools
  • Smaller teeth
  • Suggested cooked foods
  • Fossil of adolescence male
  • 1.5 meters tall, weighed 47 kilograms
homo erectus
Homo erectus
  • First hominins to migrate out of Africa
  • Colonizing Asia & Europe
  • Lived 1.8 million to 500,000 years ago
  • Larger than Homo habilis-1.5 meters
  • Larger brain (1000 cm3)
  • Sexual dimorphism similar to modern man
homo erectus1
Homo erectus
  • Social species
  • Lived in tribes of 20-50 people
  • Dwelling in caves
  • Hunted large animals
  • Used flint for fires
  • Lived longer than any other species
homo erectus2
Homo erectus
  • “Java Man” & “Peking Man”
  • Fossils found in China
  • H. erectus extinct 200,000 years ago
homo neanderthalensis
Homo neanderthalensis
  • Neanderthals
  • 1856 in Germany
  • Fossil dating 40,000 years old
  • Lived in Europe
  • 200,000 to 40,000 years ago
  • Thick boned, heavy hominins
  • Prominent brow
  • Brain size of humans
  • Extinct 30,000 years ago
homo sapiens
Homo sapiens
  • Originated in Africa-DNA evidence
  • Older species (H.ergaster or H.erectus) gave rise to H. sapiens
  • Oldest fossils dated 195,000 to 160,000 years in Ethiopia
  • Oldest fossils outside of Africa is 40,000 years old
homo sapiens1
Homo sapiens
  • Humans spread to NA 13,000 years
  • By 10,000 there were 5 million spread through the world.
homo sapiens2
Homo sapiens
  • Only surviving hominins
  • Increasing brain size
  • Use tools
  • Symbolic language
  • Shape concepts out of experience
  • Transmit experience from one generation to another
  • Change environment